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Vocabulary Pinball Click on the red flipper buttons to keep the ball in play. Try to hit all of the letters with the ball to spell a word. Next, choose the correct definition for the word. A correct answer gives a free ball and an incorrect takes a ball away. Hold down and release the green button to launch the ball! Try all of the lists or register to make your own!




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List Content

AGSCTech Unit 1

  • agindustry -- all of the activities in producing and marketing food, fiber, and forestry products to consumers
  • agriscience -- using new technologies in the production of food, fiber, and shelter
  • EPA -- the environmental protection agency; an agency of the Federal government focused on environmental quality
  • horticulture -- the science of producing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants
  • agribusiness -- non-farm work or processes in the agricultural industry
  • agriculture -- the science of producing crops and raising livestock
  • biotechnology -- the management of biological systems for the benefit of humans, including cloning, gene transfer, and other technologies
  • issue -- a matter on which differences of opinion exist; a dispute
  • agmechanics -- design, construction, repair, and maintenance of tractors, machinery, and other structures used in the agricultural industry
  • aquaculture -- the science of producing aquatic plants and animals
  • FEMA -- the Federal Emergency Management Agency; an agency focused on responding to natural and other disasters
  • USDA -- the United State Department of Agriculture; the main agency of the Federal government that oversees agriculture

AGSCTech Unit 11 Part 1

  • circular saw -- a motor-driven power hand saw with round blade
  • convexbevel -- a bevel which is raised or curved outward
  • dado -- a square or rectangular groove in the face of a board
  • boardfoot -- a wood measurement of 144 cubic inches; board dimensions of 12 inches by 12 inches by 1 inch
  • concavebevel -- a bevel which is hollowed or curved inward
  • crosscuthandsaw -- a saw with small teeth (more teeth per inch) for cutting across the grain of wood
  • finishingnail -- a slender nail with a small head used for interior trim work
  • bladebalance -- a device used to balance a lawn mower blade to prevent excess vibration during operation
  • commonnail -- a kind of nail with a flat head that is used in general construction
  • crosscut -- to cut across the grain of wood
  • doubleinclined -- a plane made by two bevels creating a point similar to that of an axe

AGSCTech Unit 11 Part 2

  • hollowground -- a single inclined plane which is concave ground
  • kickback -- a safety hazard that results when a saw blade binds in the material being cut resulting in uncontrollable throwing of a material or saw
  • riphandsaw -- a saw with larger teeth (fewer teeth per inch) for cutting with the grain of wood
  • twistdrill -- common drill bit used for making round holes in wood and metal
  • highspeeddrill -- twist drill made tempered specifically to drill holes in steel
  • kerf -- opening in board made by the cutting of a saw blade; also referred to as saw kerf
  • rip -- to cut along the grain of wood
  • singleincline -- a type of bevel with one edge; used on wood chisels and plane irons
  • hone -- the process of finely sharpening a cutting edge with a bench stone or hand stone
  • rabbet -- a cut or groove at the end of a board made to receive another board and form a joint
  • rpm -- the number of times a rotating shaft or blade turns or rotates in sixty seconds

AGSCTech Unit 12

  • switch -- a device used to stop the flow of electrical current; used in controlling devices
  • conduit -- metal tube with individually insulated wires
  • romex -- sheathed cable containing individually insulated electrical wires
  • watt -- the measurement of elctrical power (W=VxA)
  • circuit -- an electrical source and wires connected to a light, heater, or motor
  • ground -- making an electrical connection between a piece of electrical equipment and the earth
  • volt -- the measurement of electrical pressure
  • amp -- the measurement of electrical flow in a conductor
  • electricity -- flow of electrons in a conductor

AGSCTech Unit 13 Part1

  • acetylene -- gas fuel used in acetylene welding
  • amperage -- the measurement of electrical flow in a conductor
  • brazing -- bonding with metals and alloys that melt above 840 degrees F when capillary action occurs
  • electrode -- a metal welding rod coated with flux used in eletric arc welding
  • alternating -- current that reverses itself sixty times per second
  • bead -- continuous and uniform line of filler metal
  • directcurrent -- current that flows in one direction continuously
  • flux -- material on an arc welding rod that cleans the metal, aids in proper cooling, and produces a gas shield for the weld
  • alloy -- a mixture of two or more metals
  • anneal -- to cool steal slowly so as to make it soft and malleable
  • carburizing -- a flame with an excess of acetylene in the mixture
  • ferrous -- metal that is made with iron ore

AGSCTech Unit 13 Part2

  • gauge -- with sheet metal, a thickness scale used to identify the thickness of metal under one-fourth inch
  • oxidizingflame -- a flame with an excess of oxygen
  • shieldedmetal -- arc welding with power as a source of heat using rods and flux that forms a gaseous shield around the molten metal until it solidifies
  • welding -- fusing two pieces of material using a heat process; most commonly used with metal and plastics
  • fusionweld -- to join parts by melting them together
  • nonferrous -- metals that do not contain iron
  • polarity -- the direction of electrical flow in the arc welding circuit (positive and negative)
  • temper -- the process of heating tool-grade steel followed by carefully controlled cooling to gain the desired degree of hardness
  • neutralflame -- a flame with a balance of oxygen and acetylene
  • oxygen -- gas in the atmosphere that supports combustion; used in some kinds of welding to promote burning of a hot flame
  • solder -- a mixture of tin and lead used to faster together sheet metal and electrical connections
  • workingpressure -- a continuous regulated pressure supplied to the oxyacetylene torch assembly

AGSCTech Unit 14

  • scale -- an instrument with all the increments shortened according to proportion; numbers and graduations on measuring tools; a rigid steel rule or measuring device; the size of a plan compared with that of th
  • drawing -- a picture or likeness made with pencil, pen, chalk, crayon, or other instruments
  • objectline -- solid line in a drawing that shows the visible edge of an object
  • borderline -- heavy solid black line drawn close to the outer edge of paper used to draw plans
  • hiddenline -- a series of dashes that indicate unseen edges
  • sketch -- a rough drawing of an idea, object or procedure
  • extensionline -- solid lines showing the exact area specified by the dimensions

AGSCTech Unit 15

  • insidediameter -- measurement used to size a pipe; based on a measurement taken from the interior walls of the pipe
  • plumbing -- planning, installing, and maintaining systems of pipes and fixtures
  • fitting -- a part used to connect pieces of pipe or other pieces to pipe
  • pipe -- rigid tube-like material
  • treading -- the process of cutting threads on pipe
  • outsidediameter -- measurement used to size pipe; based on a measurement taken from the exterior walls of the pipe
  • ream -- removing the burrs from the inside edge of cut pipe

AGSCTech Unit 16

  • concrete -- a mixture of stone aggregates, sand, Portland cement, and water that hardens as it dries
  • mix -- ratio of materials in concrete or mortar
  • ratio -- proportion of one component to another by weight or volume
  • masonry -- anything made of brick, stone, tile, or concrete units held in place by masonry cement
  • Portlandcement -- a dry powder made by burning limestone and clay followed by grinding and mixing
  • form -- a metal or wooden structure that contains concrete until it hardens
  • mortar -- mixture of Portland cement, finishing lime, and sand

AGSCTech Unit 17

  • carburetor -- provides fuel and air to the engine in appropriate proportions and volume
  • horsepower -- force needed to life 550 pounds one foot in one second; rating system of engine power displacement
  • powerstroke -- the engine process in which burning fuel expands rapidly but evenly to drive the piston downward
  • exhauststroke -- movement of the piston which expels burned gases from the cylinder
  • intakestroke -- engine process of taking fuel and air into the combustion chamber
  • compression -- stroke movement of an engine's piston to squeeze or compress the fuel-air mixture
  • ignition -- a spark that ignites the fuel and air mixture

AGSCTech Unit 18

  • foresight -- a reading taken on a point of unknown elevation
  • benchmark -- a point of predetermined elevation
  • surveyingrod -- a measuring device to determine vertical distances in making a land survey or contour map
  • backsight -- a reading taken on a point of known elevation
  • level -- the surveying instrument

AGSCTech Unit 2 and3

  • leadership -- the ability to direct and guide others to accomplish a goal
  • motion -- a basic proposal that brings business before the assembly
  • vote -- to give members the right to express approval of or opposition to a particular action
  • FFA -- a national organization for students enrolled in agricultural education that promotes leadership, growth, and career success
  • minutes -- the official written record of a business meeting
  • prepared -- a type of speech in which the speaker prepares the speech completely beforehand
  • CDE -- a hands-on team competition designed for FFA members to develop career-related skills
  • extemporaneous -- a type of speech in which the speaker prepares ideas but does not memorize exact words
  • parliamentary -- a method of conducting meetings in an orderly manner

AGSCTech Unit 6

  • naturalresource -- resources found in nature that support life and produce fuel
  • water -- a colorless, odorless liquid essential for all forms of life
  • forestry -- the production and management of trees for lumber and other related commodities
  • renewable -- a resource provided by nature that can replace itself
  • conservation -- the control and preservation of natural resources for present and future use
  • nonrenewable -- a resource provided by nature that cannot replace itself
  • wildlife -- nondomesticated animals that thrive in natural environments

AGSCTech Unit 7

  • respiration -- the process by which plants convert food to energy
  • biennial -- a plant that needs two years to complete its life cycle
  • monocot -- a plant with one seed leaf
  • plant science -- the science of plant growth, care, and management
  • transpiration -- the process by which a plant loses water vapor
  • annual -- a plant that completes its life cycle in one year or less
  • fertilizer -- a material that supplies nutrients to plants
  • photosynthesis -- the food-making process of plants
  • soil -- the outer layer of the earth's crust that supports plant growth
  • dicot -- a plant with two seed leaves
  • perennial -- a plant that needs more than two years to complete its life cycle

AGSCTech Unit 8

  • animalscience -- the science of animal growth, care, and management
  • gestation -- length of pregnancy
  • polled -- genetically without horns
  • breed -- a group of animals having similar physical characteristics that are passed on to their offspring
  • nonruminant -- a simple-stomached animal
  • vaccination -- an agent administered to prevent disease
  • AI -- reproduction by means other than natural mating
  • lactation -- period of time when mammals are producing milk
  • ruminant -- an animal that has a stomach with more than one compartment

AGSCTech Unit 9

  • compoundmachine -- a machine, often large, that is comprised of many simple machines
  • tractor -- a moving vehicle, usually with wheels or tracks, with an engine that provides power for other equipment
  • agequipment -- implements used in the agricultural industry to produce plants, animals, and other products
  • agstructures -- facilities used in the agricultural industry, including barns, poultry houses, grain elevators, earthen structures such as ponds, and other kinds of structures
  • simplemachine -- a device or machine that has only one or two parts such as a wheel and axle
  • agpower -- the use of engines, motors, and other sources of power to do work in the agricultural industry
  • shop -- a building in which mechanical work is performed; sometimes called an agricultural mechanics laboratory
  • agmechanization -- the use of complex machines, often powered, to do work in the agricultural industry

AGSCTech Units 4 and 5

  • safety -- taking steps or actions to prevent loss or injury
  • production -- an SAE in which students learn to raise and manage crops and livestock
  • hazard -- a danger or the potential of danger
  • risk -- the possibility of being injured or losing something
  • placement -- an SAE in which students are employed in an agriculture-related field
  • SAE -- an opportunity for students designed to develop knowledge and skills in agriculture-related fields while in supervised settings
  • ppe -- equipment worn to protect from injury including goggles, ear plugs, face shields, boots, gloves, and respirators
  • entrepreneur -- a student-owned business that serves as an SAE
  • record book -- the proper place to record all SAE inventory, deposits, and expenditures
  • osha -- an agency of the federal government that oversees safety and health of workers in thier jobs

BIO AnSc - Unit 3

  • experiment -- a set of procedures used to gather information
  • independent -- the variable in an experiment that is manipulated
  • recommendation -- suggestions on how results should be used; suggestions for further experimentation
  • treatment -- the manipulation of an independent variable
  • conclusion -- a specific statement about the relationship between variables
  • dependent -- variable that is measured to determine the effects of the independent variable
  • hypothesis -- a tentatively accepted theory that explains the relationship between two variables
  • procedure -- a detailed and complete description of how the experiment is or was conducted
  • research -- investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts
  • data -- factual information; information in numerical form
  • findings -- actual data generated from an experiment
  • manipulation -- management of the independent variable in an experiment
  • replication -- exact duplication of an experiment
  • controlgroup -- in a scientific experiment, a group of animals, plants, etc. that do not receive the treatment under study

BIO AnSc - Unit 4

  • procedure -- method of carrying out an experiment so it can be replicated again by other individuals
  • bibliography -- a list of references presented in a manner that the sources can be found again for verification or further studies
  • hypothesis -- a tentatively accepted theory that explains the relationship between two variables
  • background -- information that reveals key knowledge about an item or theory that can be used to support ideas or give guidance for further investigation
  • finding -- actual data generated from an experiment
  • recommendation -- a suggestion on how results should be used or for further experimentation
  • abstract -- a summary or short version of a piece of writing
  • conclusion -- specific statements about the relationships between variables

BIO AnSc - Unit 5

  • chromosome -- the part of a cell that contains information about genetic makeup and transmits that information to offspring
  • gamete -- the sex cell; either an egg or a sperm
  • genotype -- the genetic makeup of an organism; allele composition
  • phenotype -- the physical appearance of an organism
  • allele -- matching genes on homologous chromosomes
  • dominant -- relating to one of a pair of allelic hereditary factors that dominates the other and appears in the organism
  • genetics -- the study of heredity in plants and animals
  • homozygous -- having identifcal alleles at one or more loci, and, therefore, producing identical gametes
  • DNA -- forms the basic material in the chromosomes of the cell nucleus
  • gene -- a unit of inheritance that is composed of DNA
  • heterozygous -- having different alleles for a single trait, and, therefore, producing two or more different kinds of gametes
  • recessive -- an allele that is not expressed phenotypically when present in the heterozygous condition

BIO AnSc - Unit 6 -part 1

  • embryotransfer -- moving an embryo from one female animal to another of the same species
  • estrus -- the time during which the female will accept the male for copulation; also referred to as being "in heat"
  • gestation -- the time during which the animal is pregnant
  • corpusluteum -- a reddish-yellow mass that forms in a ruptured follicle in the ovary of mammals; the hormone progesterone is released here
  • estrouscycle -- the time between periods of estrus
  • FSH -- a hormone produced by the pituatary gland that promotes growth of ovarian follicles in the female and sperm in the male
  • copulation -- the mating of a male and female
  • estrogen -- a hormone produced by the ovaries
  • follicle -- a small blister-like development on the surface of the ovary that contains the developing ovum
  • hormone -- an organic material given off by a body gland that helps to regulate body functions

BIO AnSc - Unit 6 -part 2

  • testosterone -- a male hormone that controls the traits of the male animal
  • inbreeding -- the mating of closely related animals
  • parturition -- the act of giving birth
  • superovulation -- the stimulation of more than the usual number of ovulations during a single estrous cycle due to the injection of certain hormones
  • hybridization -- the production of hybrids by natural crossing or by manipulated crossing
  • oxytocin -- a hormone that causes contractions of the uterus during breeding and parturition and causes milk letdown
  • selective -- breeding of selected animals chosen because of certain desirable qualities or fitness
  • zygote -- a cell formed by the union of two gametes
  • ovulation -- the release of the egg from the ovary
  • progesterone -- a hormone produced by the ovaries that maintains pregnancy in the animal

BIO AnSc - Unit 7 -part 1

  • antimicrobial -- a substance that can destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms
  • finishing -- the increased feeding of an animal just prior to butchering that results in rapid gains and increased carcass quality
  • maintenance -- a ration consisting of the amount of feed needed to support an animal when it is not doing work, yielding no product, and gaining no weight
  • anthelmintic -- a chemical compound used for treating internal worms in animals
  • cud -- in ruminants, a ball-like mass of feed that is brought up from the stomach to be re-chewed
  • lipids -- fats and oils made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  • carbohydrates -- organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  • lactation -- the period of milk secretion
  • mineral -- an inorganic substance needed in small amount for proper nutrition

BIO AnSc - Unit 7 -part 2

  • regurgitation -- to return undigested food from the stomach to the mouth as with ruminants
  • vitamin -- an organic compound needed in small amounts for nutrition
  • nonruminant -- an animal that has a simple, one-compartment stomach
  • ration -- the total amount of feed that an animal is allowed during a 24-hour period
  • rumination -- the process of digestion in cattle, whereby food is swallowed to the first stomach (the rumen) and then regurgitated into the mouth and chewed over again to be swallowed for further processing by the
  • monogastric -- refers to an animal that only has one stomach or stomach compartment
  • protein -- an organic compound made up of amino acids and containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  • ruminant -- an animal that has a stomach divided into several compartments
  • nutrient -- a chemical element or compound that aids in the support of life

BIO AnSc - Unit 8 -Part 1

  • bacteria -- one-celled microorganisms; many species
  • infectious -- a disease that is contagious; transmitted from one animal to another
  • intramuscular -- injections placed in the muscle tissue
  • isolation -- confining an animal away from other animals to prevent breeding or spread of disease
  • antibiotic -- a chemical agent that prevents the growth of a germ or bacteria
  • disinfectant -- a chemical that destroys microbes by breaking down cell proteins
  • intramammary -- injections placed in the mammary glands
  • intravenous -- injections placed in the vein
  • activeimmunity -- the type of immunity in an animal that is permanent
  • colostrum -- the milk produced the first few days after parturition
  • intradermal -- injections placed in the skin tissue
  • intrarumenally -- injections placed in the rumen

BIO AnSc - Unit 8 -Part 2

  • mastitis -- an inflammation of the mammary gland that is usually associated with infection
  • passiveimmunity -- immunity that is temporary
  • stress -- a strain, or straining condition, that may be physical, chemical, or psychological and cannot be adjusted to satisfactorily
  • vaccine -- a substance that contains live, modified, or dead organisms or their products that is injected into an animal in an attempt to protect the host from disease caused by that particular organism
  • oral -- taken by mouth
  • sanitation -- the development and practical application of measures designed to maintain or restore healthful conditions
  • topical -- medicine that is applied to the surface of the skin
  • noninfectious -- a disease that cannot be transmitted from one animal to another
  • pathogen -- a living, microscopic, disease-producing agent, such as a bacterium or a virus
  • subcutaneous -- an injection placed just under the skin but above muscle tissue
  • virus -- a self-reproducing agent that is considerably smaller that a bacterium and can multiply only within the livng cells of a suitable host

BIO AnSc - Unit 9

  • biotechnology -- the management of biological systems for the benefit of humanity
  • particlegun -- a device used to insert new genetic material into an organism
  • biological -- engineering which is an advanced form of biotechnology; techniques involve gene splicing, replication, and transfer of genes to other organisms
  • genesplicing -- the process of adding new genetic material within the DNA sequence of an organism
  • Ecoli -- bacteria that are commonly used to deliver new or altered material in an organism; normally inhabit human colon

BIO AnSc - Unit10 Part 1

  • aerobicbacteria -- organisms that grow only in the presence of oxygen
  • canning -- placing food in a container and heating it to kill all microorganisms
  • coliform -- a group of bacteria that usually inhabits the intestines of animals and lives in manure and on wood
  • dehydration -- the removal of 95 percent of more of the water from any substance by exposure to high temperature
  • microbes -- minute plant and animal life; some cause disease; others are beneficial
  • CMT -- a field test that estimates the extent of mastitis infection
  • cheese -- a food product made from the solids in milk
  • curing -- adding substances to food to prevent spoilage; salting, smoking, pickling, etc.
  • irradiation -- the process of treating of a food or feed with ultraviolet light to increase the Vitamin D content
  • nonfatsolids -- the parts of a substance, not including the fat, that help it keeps its form
  • anaerobic -- organisms that grow without the presence of oxygen
  • casein -- a phosphoprotein that is one of the main components of milk and the basis of cheese
  • curd -- an acid buildup created by bacteria, consisting of casein and obtained from soured milk through coagulation
  • fermentation -- the processing of food by the use of selected yeasts, molds, or bacteria
  • mold -- fungi distributed by the formation of a network of filaments or thread or by spore masses

BIO AnSc - Unit10 Part2

  • pasteurization -- the process of heat-treating milk to kill microbes
  • pickling -- a process of food preservation that uses a solution, such as vinegar, that is too acidic for microbes to grow
  • refrigeration -- artificial cooling that drastically reduces microbial growth of certain bacteria
  • salting -- a method of preserving food that uses salt to prevent the growth of microbes
  • yeast -- a yellowish substance composed of microscopic, unicellular fungi that induces fermentation in juice, dough, and other materials
  • paraffin -- a thin layer of waxy material that helps seal the surface of a fruit ot prevent damage to the skin
  • perishable -- any product that is easily or quickly destroyed or made unusable or unsafe
  • rawmilk -- untreated milk as it comes from the cow; fresh milk
  • salmonella -- a large group of bacteria, some of which cause food poisoning
  • whey -- the watery liquid that is separated from the curd after milk coagulation
  • penicillium -- any of a genus of imperfect fungi growing as green mold on stale bread, ripening cheese, or decaying fruit
  • putrefaction -- decomposition of animal or plant matter by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen
  • rennet -- a coagulating extract containing the enzyme rennin; used to curdle milk, as when milking cheese
  • somaticcell -- count that is a laboratory test that indicates the presence and severity of mastitis
  • yogurt -- a semisolid, fermented milk product

BIO AnSc - Units 1 and 2

  • zoology -- the branch of biology that deals with animal life
  • personalsafety -- promoting the protection of individuals from injury
  • biological -- science involving the study of living organisms
  • labaccident -- an accident occurring in a laboratory environment
  • zoonosis -- a disease communicable from animals to humans under natural conditions
  • animalscience -- the science of animals; applied zoology
  • animalrestraint -- holding or confining animals so that management practices may be applied
  • safety -- preventing loss or injury

BIO Plnt Sc - Unit 1

  • entomology -- the study of insects
  • soilscience -- the study of soil
  • botany -- the study of plants
  • horticulture -- the area encompassing the production of fruits, vegetables, flowers, turf, nuts, and shrubs and other onamental plants
  • bioplantscience -- the biological approach to studying plant sciences
  • forestry -- the science, art, and business practices associated with the production of trees and their products
  • agronomy -- the theory and practice of field crop production, including soils

BIO Plnt Sc - Unit 2

  • PPE -- personal protective equipment, worn to protect from injury including goggles, ear plugs, face shields, gloves, boots and respirators
  • safety -- preventing loss or injury
  • labaccidents -- accidents occuring in a laboratory
  • plantallergy -- humans succeptibility to substances produced by plants, such as poison ivy and pollen; may affect animals
  • hazard -- a danger or potential danger
  • personalsafety -- promoting the protection of individuals from injury

BIO Plnt Sc - Unit 3

  • independent -- the variable in an experiment that is manipulated
  • scientific -- a carefully controlled method or systematic process for discovering the unknown
  • data -- factual information that is often in numerical form
  • hypothesis -- a tentatively accepted theory that explains the relationship between two variables
  • research -- investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpreation of facts
  • control -- to hold constant
  • experimental -- a process of scientific inquiry where all factors, except the variable under investigation, are controlled or held constant
  • mean -- midway between two extreme numbers; the average
  • treatment -- the manipulation of an independent variable
  • average -- the value arrived at by adding the quantities in a series and dividing the total by their number
  • dependent -- a variable that is measured to determine the effects of the independent variable

BIO Plnt Sc - Unit 4

  • background -- information that reveals key knowledge about an item or theory that can be used to support ideas or give guidance for further investigation
  • finding -- actual data generated from an experiment
  • style -- the way a paper is presented, including headings, citations, tables, graphs, bibliography, table of contents, and title page
  • abstract -- a summary or short version of a piece of writing
  • conclusion -- specific statements about the relationships between variables
  • recommendation -- a suggestion on how results should be used for further experimentation
  • bibliography -- a lsit of references presented in a manner that the sources can be found again for verification or further studies
  • procedure -- method of carrying out an experiment so it can be replicated again by other individuals

BIO Plnt Sc - Unit 5

  • dominantgene -- causes a certain characteristic to be expressed; present in offspring
  • genotype -- the genetic makeup
  • hybridvigor -- the act of the offspring outperforming the parents due to gene combination (heterosis)
  • phenotype -- the physical appearance of an organism
  • DNA -- a genetic protein-like nucleic acid in plant and animal genes and chromosomes that controls inheritance
  • gene -- the specific determiner of heredity
  • hormone -- a chemical messenger substance produced in one location of an organism and carried to another where it has a specific effect(s)
  • mutation -- an accident of heredity in which an offspring has different characteristics than the genetic code intended
  • recessivegene -- the character will be masked if either parent has a dominant gene; will only be expressed if the alleles from both parents are the same (and not dominant)
  • chromosome -- that part of a cell that contains information about genetic makeup and transmits that information to offspring; made up of proteins and nucleic acids; consists of DNA
  • Fonehybrid -- an offspring of two parents in which the offspring is sterile
  • heritability -- the portion of the differences in plants that is transmitted from parent to offspring
  • incomplete -- dominance when either gene is dominant, both genes are expressed (example: red and white cattle produce a roan colored calf)
  • punnettsquare -- a common method of predicting the genotypes and phenotypes of offspring using a matrix
  • allele -- matching genes on homologus chromosomes

BIO Plnt Sc Unit 10

  • bioengineering -- an advanced form of biotechnology; techniques involve gene splicing, replication, and transfer of genes to other organisms
  • genesplicing -- the process of adding new genetic material within the DNA sequence of an organism
  • particle gun -- a devide used to insert new genetic material into an organism
  • Ecoli -- bacteria that are commonly used to deliver new or altered genetic material in an organism
  • gmo -- an organism that has been genetically engineered to achieve a desired trait
  • biotechnology -- the management of biological systems for the benefit of humanity
  • geneticengineer -- artificially altering the genetic makeup of an organism
  • transgenicplant -- a plant that has been genetically altered by artificial means

BIO Plnt Sc Unit 11

  • pest -- anything that is unwanted
  • growthregulator -- compounds applied to plants to promote, inhibit, or modify plant growth processes
  • ipm -- an approach that manages pest populations while minimizing environmental damage and reducing economic damage; uses a variety of chemical, mechanical, and biological techniques with pests
  • defoliant -- a chemical substance applied to plants which causes the foliage to fall off; a growth regulator
  • insecticide -- a chemical used to kill insects
  • pesticide -- anything that is used to control, manage, or eliminate pests; include insecticides, herbicides, and others
  • herbicide -- a chemical used to kill plants

BIO Plnt Sc Unit 6

  • phototropism -- plant growth in response to light
  • translocation -- movement of materials in plants and cells
  • gravitropism -- plant growth in response to gravity
  • photosynthesis -- process by which green plants produce carbohydrates
  • theotropism -- plant growth in response to touch
  • tropism -- growth reaction of plants to external stimuli, such as sunlight or gravity
  • Nfixation -- the biochemical process of converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to a form that can be used with plants
  • respiration -- chemical processes in cells to release energy and waste products; also sometimes known as oxidation
  • transpiration -- process of water vapor being released by plants into the atmosphere
  • legume -- a plant that has the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to a form that can be used by plant root systems

BIO Plnt Sc Unit 7 Part 1

  • asexual -- reproduction without fertilization
  • fertilization -- in plant reproduction, union of pollen sperm with ovule to produce seeds
  • hybrid -- a plant resulting from selected crossing of parents that are unliked
  • cutting -- a form of plant asexual reproduction using a section of plant that can regenerate itself
  • grafting -- asexual plant reproduction involving the insertion or moving of a scion (piece of plant) onto another plant (stock) so that a new plant is created
  • ovary -- the portion of the pistil of a flower that contains one or more ovules, female reproductive organs
  • budding -- a form of plant asexual reproduction that involves transferring a bud from a parent plant to a stock (new plant)
  • germination -- sprouting of a seed to produce a new plant
  • layering -- asexual plant reproduction involving promoting the growth of roots on stems or branches while still attached to the parent plant

BIO Plnt Sc Unit 7 Part 2

  • pollen -- the male element or spore of a flower borne by the anthers and form sperm cells needed for fertilization of the ovules in the ovary of a flower
  • scarification -- to scratch or crack the coating of a seed to promote germination
  • stigma -- the female organ of a flower that receives pollen
  • ovule -- the egg-containing part of an ovary that develops into a seed
  • propagation -- the reproduction of plants by sexual or asexual means
  • sexual -- reproducing plants from seeds
  • pollination -- the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a flower in the fertilization process
  • seed -- the structure that contains the embryo of a plant
  • stratification -- the rest period some seeds need before they will germinate

BIO Plnt Sc Units 8 and 9

  • microprop -- the creation of plant tissue on a small or microscopic scale
  • solution -- water with dissolved nutrient salts
  • callus -- an undifferentiated mass of plant cells that grow from an explant when placed on an artificial medium under sterile conditions
  • media -- soil or soil-like materials in which plants may be grown (singular form: medium)
  • sterile -- using procedures that assure asepsis in the work environment, such as in a laminar flow hood, and instruments and materials that are aseptic
  • hydroponics -- a method of growing plants in which the nutrients needed by the plant are supplied by a nutrient solution
  • asepsis -- a condition of freedom from microbes
  • laminarflowhood -- scientific equipment that provides a poisitve air flow and prevents any foreign material from contaminating a culture
  • petridish -- circular container with a top used for culturing various organisms
  • agar -- a nutrient-rich medium used to culture living organisms
  • explant -- small pieces of plant tissue

Ldrshp Unit 1 and 2

  • autocratic -- (authoritarian leadership) - a style in which the leader makes decisions for the group
  • leadershipstyle -- the way individuals act in their roles as leaders
  • ethics -- behavior or conduct that is morally correct; following principles of fairness, honesty, integrity, and consideration of others
  • leadership -- the ability to move or influence others toward achieving individual or group goals
  • laissezfaire -- a leadership style in which a group makes decisions with little if any input from the leader
  • leader -- a person who helps a group or an individual in achieving goals
  • democratic -- a leadership style that is based upon the participation of the members of a group in the decision making process
  • follower -- an individual who follows the ideas, goals, or tasks of a leader

Ldrshp Unit 3 and 4

  • nonurgent -- not requiring immediate attention
  • timemanagement -- planning how you will control your time to do the things you need and want to do
  • intermediate -- an action that should be achieved between one and five years
  • waysandmeans -- actions to be taken to achieve goals
  • procrastination -- to put off doing something until a future time
  • goalsetting -- the process of establishing goals, including ways and means
  • shorttermgoal -- an action that can be achieved in a short time, usually less than a year, and involves only a few steps
  • priority -- to arrange or deal with in order of importance
  • goal -- something an individual wants to achieve
  • urgent -- requires immediate attention
  • longtermgoal -- an action that will take a long time, more than five years, to achieve and usually involves many steps

Ldrshp Unit 5 and 6

  • group -- two or more people working together to accomplish a goal
  • teamworkskills -- the ability to work well with others in a group situation
  • resolution -- the use of techniques that allow people to quietly resolve problems between them
  • facilitator -- someone who works with a group to make things run effectively and efficiently
  • team -- a group of individuals working together to achieve a common purpose
  • conflict -- problems that arise between individuals or groups
  • problemsolving -- the method of arriving at a decision or answer
  • groupdynamics -- the patterns of interactions within a group
  • compromise -- to settle differences by mutual agreement
  • consensus -- the decision-making process in which people gather and discuss information on an issue until an agreement is reached

Ldrshp Unit 7 and 8

  • application -- a letter used to apply for a job or award
  • extemperaneous -- a type of speech in which the speaker prepares ideas but does not memorize exact words
  • outline -- a plan that forms the framework for a speech
  • publicspeaking -- a type of communication that uses oral methods of conveying information
  • communication -- the process of exchanging information
  • citation -- acknowledging the role and contributions of resources in a speech or written document
  • nonverbal -- messages conveyed by a person's behavior and the physical environment
  • prepared -- a type of speech in which the speaker prepares the speech completely beforehand
  • resume -- a one or two page description of an applicant that gives his/her educational background, experiences, and qualifications
  • impromptu -- a type of speech in which the speaker talks "off the cuff" with no chance for preparation
  • plagiarism -- using the work of another as one's own

Ldrshp Unit 9

  • motion -- a basic proposal that brings business before the assembly
  • vote -- to give members the right to express approval of, or opposition to, a particular action
  • consensus -- agreement among individuals without voting
  • presider -- an individual who presides over a meeting demonstrating knowledge and skill in parliamentary procedure and practices fairness to all individuals
  • chairperson -- presiding member of a group
  • parliamentary -- a method of conducting meetings in an orderly manner

PLNT SC - Unit 1

  • cultivar -- a cultivated plant that has specific and distinguishable characteristics; written in single quotes
  • horticulture -- production and use of plants for personal appeal or food
  • variety -- a subdivision of a species; it has various inheritable characteristics of form and structure that are continued through both sexual and asexual propagation
  • CDE -- an FFA activity to promote and recognize students as they develop skills related to employment in the agricultural industry
  • genus -- a closely related and definable group of plants comprising of one or more species
  • species -- the basic unit in the classification system whose members have similar structure, common ancestors, and maintain their characteristics; subgroup of genus
  • agronomy -- the science, theory, and practice of field crop production; may include soil science
  • forestry -- the production of trees and manufacture of wood products
  • plantscience -- is the study of the structure, functions, growth, and protection of plants; usually includes three areas: field crops, horticultural crops, and forestry

PLNT SC - Unit 4 Part 1

  • annual -- a plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season
  • chloroplasts -- part of plant cell containing green pigment to trap light energy for photosynthesis
  • guardcells -- a pair of cells that regulate the opening and closing of the stomata
  • lateralbud -- buds located along the sides of stems where the leaves are attached
  • monocot -- a class of flowering plants where two cotyledon's are found
  • biennial -- a plant that completes its life cycle in two growing season
  • dicot -- a class of flowering plants where two cotyledon's are found
  • internode -- the area between two nodes
  • leafblade -- large broad part of the leaf
  • apicaldominance -- a condition created by hormones in the apical meristem that prevents lateral buds from developing
  • cotyledon -- seed leaves on an embryo
  • herbaceous -- a plant whose stem has little or no woody tissue; a soft-stem plant
  • leaf -- plant part consisting of a stipule, petiole, and blade

PLNT SC - Unit 4 Part 2

  • node -- portion of the stem that is swollen or slightly enlarged that gives rise to buds
  • photosynthesis -- the process by which green plants convert solar energy into stored chemical energy
  • respiration -- the process in which plants take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide
  • stoma -- an opening or pore in the leaf that allows for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor
  • xylem -- the plant tissue that transports food, moisture, and nutrients up from the roots
  • petiole -- the leaf stalk, connecting structure between leaf blade and plant stem
  • physiology -- an area of biology that deals with processes that occur in living organisms
  • stem -- the main trunk of a plant
  • transpiration -- the movement of water vapor through a stoma out of a plant
  • perennial -- a plant that completes its life cycle in more than two years
  • phloem -- the plant tissue that transports food made in the leaves down to the roots for storage
  • root -- the underground part of the plant which stores food and absorbs moisture and minerals from the ground
  • terminalbud -- the large bud at the tip of a twig

PLNT SC - Unit 5 Part 1

  • freewater -- water that drains out of the soil after it has been wetted
  • gravitational -- water pulled downward in the soil by gravity
  • lime -- a substance that is added to soil, used to raise pH
  • elements -- the most basic form of matter which maintains the characteristics of the substance
  • analysis -- percentage of nutrients in fertilizer
  • irrigation -- the artificial application of water to plants
  • micronutrient -- the nutrients needed by plants in small amounts; such as boron, copper, chlorine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and zinc
  • clay -- the smallest of inorganic particles in the soil
  • fertilizer -- any material added to the soil to provide nutrients
  • hygroscopic -- water that forms a thin film around soil particles and is not available to plants
  • macronutrient -- the nutrients needed by plants in the largest amounts; such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur
  • capillarywater -- water held between soil particles against the force of gravity

PLNT SC - Unit 5 Part 2

  • sterilization -- the process of preventing gorwth of plants in a soil
  • topsoil -- the layer of soil found on the surface
  • organicmatter -- decayed or partially decayed remains of plants and animals found in the soil
  • sand -- the largest of the soil particles
  • soilprofile -- a cross section of the soil, usually 3 to 4 feet deep
  • subsoil -- the layer of soil below the topsoil
  • porespace -- space between soil particles
  • soilfertility -- the ability of soil to provide nutrients for plant growth
  • soiltexture -- the amount of sand, silt, and clay in the soil
  • pH -- the measure of acidity or alkalinity of the soil
  • silt -- the middle sized of the soil particles

PLNT SC - Units 2 and 3

  • heredity -- the passing of traits from parents to offspring
  • safety -- preventing loss or injury
  • crossbreeding -- the breeding of two different pure breeds
  • genotype -- genetic makeup of an animal
  • reproduction -- the process by which new organisms are derived, being sexually or asexually with plants
  • poisonivy -- a climbing plant to which some individuals are very allergic
  • chromosome -- a strand of genetic material that contains genetic code
  • genetics -- the study of heredity
  • phenotype -- the outward expression of a gene
  • allergy -- reaction of humans by sneezing, scratching, itching, rashes, or other means to certain plants and plant products
  • cell -- the basic unit of life
  • gene -- a unit of inheritance composed of DNA

PLNT SC Unit 6

  • internode -- the area between two nodes
  • rooting hormone -- a hormone used to enhance production of roots on a cutting
  • growthregulator -- substances that promote, inhibit, or modify plant growth
  • photoperiodism -- the response of plants to light
  • cell -- the basic unit of life containing living material bound by a membrane
  • node -- portion of the stem that is swollen or slightly enlarged that gives rise to buds

PLNT SC Unit 7

  • propagation -- reproducing plants from seed, which result from the union of male and female sex cells
  • stigma -- the sticky part of a flower pistil where pollen is collected
  • hybrid -- offspring from genetically different parents; produced through human manipulation
  • pollen -- the part of the flower which produces male sex cells
  • seed -- the fertilized, mature ovule of a plant; consist of three major parts: seed coat, embryo, and stored food
  • stratification -- the process of seed going through a time of cold temperature before it germinates
  • germination -- growth of a new plant from a seed
  • ovule -- the part of the ovary where eggs are produced and seeds develop
  • propagation -- plant reproduction; increasing the number of plants using sexual and asexual means
  • scarification -- the breaking down of a seed coat to encourage germination
  • fertilization -- process in which the sperm cell joins the egg cell
  • ovary -- the part of the flower that contains one or more ovules
  • pollination -- the transfer of pollen from the male to female part of the flower

PLNT SC Unit 8

  • cutting -- stems, leaves, or roots of plants used for asexual reproduction
  • layering -- the method of asexual reproduction in which stems form a root while the stem is attached to the parent plant
  • tissueculture -- reproducing a plant by using small pieces of tissue in an artificial medium under sterile conditions
  • clone -- a genetic duplicate of a parent
  • grafting -- the process of getting the parts of one plant to grow on the parts of another plant; scion from one plant is placed on the stock of another plant
  • separation -- a propagation method in which natural plant structures are removed from the parent plant and grown separately
  • asexual -- reproducing plants vegetatively; reproduction without sexual union
  • division -- the cutting of new plants into sections for growing new plants
  • scion -- the stem or bud portion of a graft

Unit 3 - Genetics

  • cell -- the basic unit of life
  • gene -- a unit of inheritance composed of DNA
  • heredity -- the passing of traits from parents to offspring
  • reproduction -- the process by which new organisms are derived normally involving the union of the male and female sex cells
  • crossbreeding -- the breeding of two different pure breeds
  • genotype -- genetic makeup of an animal
  • purebreeding -- the breeding of animals within the same breed
  • chromosome -- a strand of genetic material that contains genetic code
  • genetics -- the study of heredity
  • phenotype -- the outward expression of a gene

Unit 4

  • bloat -- a severe distention of the abdomen by gas
  • fats -- the oily or greasy substances found in certain plants
  • milk fever -- paralysis due to an imbalance of blood calcium, sugars, or magnesium
  • protein -- any of a large number of complex organic compounds of amino acids that is an essential part of all living things
  • water -- the most valuable natural resource
  • balanced ration -- a daily allowance of livestock feed mixed to contain suitable nutrients to promote normal development, maintenance, lactation, or gestation
  • concentrate -- feed that is high in energy and low in fiber
  • feedstuff -- a feed ingredient
  • nutrition -- the process by which an animal ingests and uses nutrients in food materials
  • vitamin -- an organic substance that performs specific and necessary functions in relatively small concentrates in an organism
  • anemia -- a deficiency of hemoglobin, iron, or red blood cells often due ot nutrition
  • carbohydrates -- any certain organic chemical compounds of C, H, and O which include sugar and starches
  • feed -- a source or product containing nutrients that support animal life and productivity
  • mineral -- a chemical compound or element of inorganic origin
  • ration -- the food an animal consumes in a 24-hour period

Unit 5 and 6

  • compost -- decomposing manure used as a soil additive
  • silo -- a pit, trench, aboveground horizontal surface, or vertical cylinder structure of relatively airtight construction into which green crops, such as corn, grass, legumes, or small grain and other feeds a
  • animalID -- attaching or altering an animal so that its identify is known, methods include tags, tattoos, brands, DNA, and notching
  • dehorning -- removing the horns or horn-developing tissue of an animal
  • sheering -- removing the hair or wool from an animal
  • lagoon -- a body of water established for anaerobic decomposition of organic waste
  • ventilation -- to provide fresh circulating air
  • debeaking -- removing the tip of the beak of a baby chick to deter unwanted pecking and cannibalism
  • PQA -- a program that guides animal producers in selecting management practices to produce a quality animal product in which its well-being is considered
  • vaccination -- administering a vaccine
  • fence -- a structure for confining animals or protecting property
  • squeezechute -- a device for safely securing a large animal for administration of a health or management practice
  • castration -- removing the testicles of a male to prevent unwanted breeding and promote desired growth
  • hormoneimplant -- a small pellet of hormone substance placed under the skin of an animal
  • taildocking -- removing the tail from an animal

Unit 7 - Animal Health

  • carrier -- any organism that carries disease
  • health -- the condition of an organism as related to normal life functions
  • protozoa -- a group of one-cell organisms sometimes classified as one-cell animals, including amoebae and paramecia
  • virus -- a self-reproducing agent that is smaller than bacteria and can multiply only within living cells of a host
  • bacteria -- single-cell microorganisms that cause disease in animals
  • fungi -- plant-like organisms that have no chlorophyll
  • poison -- any substance toxic to the animal
  • quarantine -- a period of time livestock are held away from other animals
  • disease -- a condition of pain, deterioration, injury, or other condition that constrains normal body functions
  • parasite -- an organism that lives in or on a host
  • sanitation -- aseptic clean condition
  • vitalsigns -- an indication of the living condition of an animal, including breathing, pulse rate, and body temperature

Unit 8 - Marketing

  • forwardcontract -- a marketing procedure of a producer and buyer entering into an agreement well before a product is produced
  • options -- a contract between producer and buyer conveying the right to sell within a specified time
  • supply -- amount of product that producers will offer for sale at a given price at a given time
  • beefcheckoff -- an established $1 per head fee for every head of beef sold in the United States
  • electronic -- a form of auction selling used mainly for feeder cattle
  • marketing -- the process and functions of moving animals and animal products from the producer to the consumer so that consumer demand is satisfied
  • shrinkage -- loss of weight that occurs when livestock are moved to market
  • auctionmarket -- livestock are sold by public bidding with the animal going to the highest bidder
  • demand -- the amount of product buyers will purchase at a given time for a given price
  • futures -- an agreement to take or make delivery of a product in the future at a specified price; involves futures trading on a commodity exchange
  • privatetreaty -- a sale made directly between a producer and buyer
  • terminal market -- livestock sold directly to the packer
  • byproduct -- a product made from part of an animal that is not used for food

Units 1 and 2

  • poultry -- any species of the fowl that is raised for the production of meat, eggs, and/or other products
  • animalinjury -- an injury to humans caused by an animal
  • goat -- any ruminant of the genus Capra that is produced for milk, meat, fiber, or other use
  • swine -- animal of the family Suidae raised for the production of pork
  • zoonoticdisease -- a disease communicable from animals to humans under natural conditions
  • equine -- animals of the genus Equus raised for work, recreational, or other uses
  • sheep -- Ovine animals raised for the production of meat and fiber
  • personalsafety -- promoting the protection of individuals from injury
  • cattle -- male or female bovine raised for the production of beef and/or milk

Units 9 and 10

  • management -- all of the decisions and organization activities needed in successfully producing animals and operating an animal production enterprise
  • soleproprietor -- owned and operated by one individual
  • kosher -- a special way of preparing meats for consumption required by jewish law
  • yieldgrade -- determined by amount of edible product
  • credit -- ability to borrow money
  • partnership -- an association of two or more people who operate the business
  • convenience -- using processing methods that simplify food preparation
  • vacuumsealing -- a process of packaging by removing air and sealing in plastic
  • corporation -- an agreemetn for carrying out a farming enterprise as an entity dinstinct from the individuals that control it
  • manager -- the operator who conducts, controls, and directs the livestock operation
  • processing -- all of the steps or procedures in preparing a product for human use
  • budget -- the amount of capital set aside for a given period
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