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Wright Academy



School:Wright Academy
Location:Virginia
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Stingray Chaser

Free stingrays and remove harmful algae from the ocean. After removing enough debris from the stingrays, you will be asked to select the correct answer to continue.




Pinball

Vocabulary Pinball Click on the red flipper buttons to keep the ball in play. Try to hit all of the letters with the ball to spell a word. Next, choose the correct definition for the word. A correct answer gives a free ball and an incorrect takes a ball away. Hold down and release the green button to launch the ball! Try all of the lists or register to make your own!




Word Find

Play the classic Word Search and find game.




Word Scramble - Words Only

Solve the scrambled words by moving the tiles around. Use the vocabulary definition or math answers to provide you the hint you need!




Word Scramble - Problems and Definitions

Solve the scrambled words by moving the tiles around. Use the vocabulary definition or math answers to provide you the hint you need!




Hangman

Play hangman with your words. Guess letters to form words from the lists that are added by people just like you! Practice your classroom lists.




List Content

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7th Grade Vocab List 1

  • balk -- stop short, refusing to move or act
  • elocution -- the art of public speaking
  • absurd -- inconsistent with reason or accepted ideas, ridiculous
  • egotism -- conceit, self-exaltation
  • silhouette -- shaded outline
  • bluntly -- rudely or abruptly, without tact
  • extricate -- set free, disentangle

7th Grade Vocab List 10

  • indignation -- righteous anger
  • pantomime -- actions and gestures without words
  • inauguration -- formal induction into office
  • malice -- ill will, evil intentions
  • inaccessible -- unreachable, unapproachable
  • loom -- appear indistinctly in enlarged or threatening form
  • quaint -- pleasantly unusual or uncommon

7th Grade Vocab List 11

  • staggering -- astonishing, overwhelming
  • vigor -- healthy energy, forcefulness
  • recipient -- receiver
  • verbatim -- in the exact words
  • ambitious -- motivated by achieving success
  • treason -- betrayal, rebellion, treachery
  • warrant -- authorize, allow, justify

7th Grade Vocab List 12

  • benevolence -- doing good to others, kindness
  • deficit -- shortage or inadequacy
  • archangel -- cief angel
  • deceased -- dead
  • destitute -- in absolute want, poverty-stricken
  • climax -- highest point of interest or excitement
  • derive -- get, receive, obtain

7th Grade Vocab List 2

  • gnarled -- rough, twisted, knotted
  • livid -- enraged, furious
  • ethical -- morally right
  • impetuous -- acting quickly with little thought, hasty
  • stamina -- endurance, strength to continue
  • heirloom -- possession handed down from generation to generation
  • mutilate -- cut off or remove a part of

7th Grade Vocab List 3

  • dreary -- dull, bleak
  • plod -- walk heavily or laboriously
  • tedious -- long and tiresome
  • ominous -- ill-omened, threatening
  • submerge -- go beneath the surface
  • exquisite -- without flaw, delicate and lovely
  • smolder -- burn without a flame

7th Grade Vocab List 4

  • consolation -- comfort for sorrow or distress
  • perforate -- punch holes in
  • composure -- settled state, calmness
  • epidemic -- widespread outbreak of an illness
  • component -- part, portion, section
  • cunning -- cleverness or craftiness
  • coax -- persuade with soothing words

7th Grade Vocab List 5

  • custodian -- keeper, guardian, conservator
  • frugal -- thrifty, not wasteful
  • cower -- shrink back or tremble in fear
  • exuberant -- overflowing with excitement, enthusiastic
  • appraise -- estimate the worth of
  • debris -- ruins, rubbish
  • jubilant -- rejoicing, exultant

7th Grade Vocab List 6

  • torrent -- rushing flow, outpouring
  • monotonous -- unvarying, repetitious
  • supplant -- dispossess, uproot and replace
  • dilapidated -- ruined, decayed, in disrepair
  • shrill -- sharp, high-pitched, piercing
  • virtue -- moral excellence, righteousness
  • monumental -- massive, large-scale

7th Grade Vocab List 7

  • detrimental -- harmful, damaging
  • inevitable -- unavoidable, inescapable
  • consultation -- meeting for discussion or planning
  • impertinent -- presumptuous, disrespectful
  • martyr -- one who dies for his beliefs
  • exile -- send away, banish
  • ingenuity -- inventive skill or imagination

7th Grade Vocab List 8

  • pensive -- deep in thought, meditative
  • serene -- calm, restful, undisturbed
  • tranquillity -- calmness, quietness
  • renounce -- give up, cast off
  • sufficient -- all that is needed, enough
  • peril -- danger, risk
  • solace -- comfort, consolation, relief

7th Grade Vocab List 9

  • affluent -- wealthy
  • critical -- hard to please, faultfinding
  • heretic -- one who rejects generally accepted beliefs
  • barrage -- barrier of artillery fire
  • gaping -- wide open
  • anguish -- distress, agony, torment
  • fateful -- decisive, momentous

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According to His Will

  • Nebuchadnezzar -- the king who conquered the western part of the Fertile Crescent, built the Hanging Gardens
  • Belshazzar -- the son of Nabonidus who handled the actual business of government and was killed by Medes and Persians
  • Tiglath-pileser -- the king who began in earnest the Assyrian drive to a world empire was _____ III
  • Jonah -- the Jewish prophet who warned Ninevah of God's coming judgment
  • Nabopolassar -- the king who conquered all of Mesopotamia and established the Chaldean Empire
  • Nabonidus -- teh last Chaldean king, who preferred to travel around the empire and leave business under his son
  • Ashurbanipal -- the last great Assyrian king, who collected a library of about 100,000 cuneiform tablets
  • Nahum -- the prophet who prophesied the destruction of Ninevah
  • Daniel -- the Israel captive who interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's dream as well as the writing on the wall
  • Cyrus the Great -- the Persian king who allowed the Jews to return to Judah
  • Shalmaneser V -- the Assyrian king who deported the ten tribes of the Northern Kingdom
  • Sennacherib -- the Assyrian king who God defeated because of his pride and defiance

According to His Will (2)

  • Darius -- the Persian king who made the Middle East into one big market place
  • Royal Road -- the great "highway" built by Darius
  • Isaiah -- the prophet who foretold that God would assist Cyrus in his conquests
  • Hanging Gardens -- the gardens built by Nebuchadnezzar for his wife
  • Nineveh -- the city built by Nimrod that became the Assyrian capital

Age of Darkness

  • Benedict -- monk who founded a monastery in Italy; set standard of rules for other monks
  • Michelangelo -- the greatest artist of the Renaissance; hired to paint ceiling of Sistine Chapel
  • Lollards -- followers of John Wycliffee
  • Chaucer -- author of The Canterbury Tales
  • Wycliffe -- had entire Bible translated into English for first time
  • monasticism -- withdrawing from society and living in solitude
  • heretic -- baptized members of Roman church who disagreed with official church opinion
  • Nicholas II -- pope who declared popes chosen only by cardinals
  • Aristotle -- "The Philosopher"
  • friars -- monks who preached and did missionary work outside the monasteries
  • Benedict -- monk who founded a monastery in Italy; set standard of rules for other monks
  • dukes -- powerful nobles who ruled small territories in Germany
  • Dante -- author of Divine Comedy
  • saints -- deceased persons officially recognized by church as holy
  • Wycliffe -- had entire Bible translated into English for first time
  • Renaissance -- period of rebirth of learning in Europe
  • Otto the Great -- crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by pope at beginning of Holy Roman Empire
  • purgatory -- place where repentant sinners stay after death until properly punished
  • Aristotle -- "The Philosopher"
  • patrons -- people who use their own money to support the arts
  • Raphael -- famous painter; painted Sistine Madonna and the School of Athens
  • breviary -- book with the official order of worship in church services
  • Dante -- author of Divine Comedy
  • Wycliffe -- Oxford Univ. teacher who challenged some central opinion of Roman church
  • The Prince -- the only book of lasting importance produced by the Italian Renaissance
  • Hussites -- followers of John Huss
  • Otto the Great -- crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by pope at beginning of Holy Roman Empire
  • Augustine -- philosopher; wrote The confessions and The City of God
  • nuns -- women who practice monasticism
  • scholasticism -- approach to learning which tried to combine Greek philosophy with Romanism
  • Thomas Aquinas -- philosopher who combined philosophy of Aristotle with Romanism; church forbade anyone to disagree with him
  • blood and body -- transubstantiation is the belief that the elements of the Lord's Supper actually change from bread and wine to Christ's _____
  • Wycliffe -- Oxford Univ. teacher who challenged some central opinion of Roman church
  • Black Death -- form of bubonic plague that killed about one half population of Europe
  • Fowler -- Henry the ______ was a powerful duke; began Saxon line of kigns in Germany
  • penance -- sacrament of punishments in this life for repentant sinners
  • Augustine -- philosopher; wrote The confessions and The City of God
  • Renaissance man -- one who displays his talents in all fields
  • da Vinci -- master painter, sculptor, inventor, and engineer; painted Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
  • Toulouse -- council that forbade anyone except a church leader to possess a copy of the Bible
  • Aquinas -- philosopher who combined philosophy of Aristotle with Romanism; church forbade anyone to disagree with him
  • Jerome -- church leader who translated the Vulgate
  • Machiavelli -- writer of The Prince
  • Constance -- council that condemned Wycliffe and Huss
  • Fowler -- Henry the ______ was a powerful duke; began Saxon line of kigns in Germany
  • Huss -- teacher whom the Council of Constance burned at the stake
  • monks -- men who practice monasticism
  • Inquisition -- special church court with power to inquire about and judge matters of heresy
  • da Vinci -- master painter, sculptor, inventor, and engineer; painted Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
  • Ockham -- William of ______ used logic to discredit doctrine of pope's absolute supremacy
  • Eucharist -- the Lord's Supper
  • Jerome -- church leader who translated the Vulgate
  • cardinals -- priests of the churches in Rome or bishops of churches close to Rome
  • Chaucer -- author of The Canterbury Tales
  • indulgences -- certificates from pope that excused a person from doing penance
  • Huss -- teacher whom the Council of Constance burned at the stake
  • humanities -- subjects such as history, grammar, rhetoric, and poetry
  • Nicholas II -- pope who declared popes chosen only by cardinals
  • Vulgate -- Jerome's Latin translation of the Scripture
  • Ockham -- William of ______ used logic to discredit doctrine of pope's absolute supremacy

Animals of the Rockies

  • Mountain Lions -- the most widely distributed carnivorous animal in the New World
  • pika -- the fat little farmer of the mountain slopes
  • Bighorn -- the wild sheep of North America
  • Grizzly Bear -- the most dangerous animal of North America
  • water ouzel -- the dipper
  • Mountain Lions -- the second largest cat in the Western Hemisphere
  • water ouzel -- makes its nest behind a waterfall

Beginning of Modern Age

  • Erasmus -- Desiderius _____ ws known for his translation of the New Testament in original Greek
  • simony -- practice of purchasing church offices
  • Tetzel -- friar who traveled through Germany selling indulgences
  • popular -- education of all people rather than just a privileged few
  • Charles V -- emperor who called Luther to the Diet of Worms
  • Anabaptists -- group whoe believed rebaptized people who had been baptized as infants
  • Petrobrusians -- follower of Peter of Bruis
  • heretic -- any baptized members of Roman church who disagreed with official church opinion
  • Gutenberg -- inventor of movable-type printing press; produced first printed edition of Bible
  • Gutenberg -- the first printed edition of the Bible
  • Martin Luther -- nailed Ninety-five Theses to Wittenberg church door
  • Edict of Worms -- edict that declared Luther a heretic
  • Wise -- Frederick the _____ was a prince who permitted Luther a hearing at the Diet of Augsburg
  • Anabaptists -- group whose members usually believed only believers should be baptized
  • John Calvin -- French reformer; wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion
  • Hussites -- follower of John Huss
  • Huss -- Bohemian preacher; led movement for true Christianity in his country
  • Northern -- this Renaissance was a movement that resulted when rebirth of learning spread from Italy into other European countries
  • Martin Luther -- reformerr; translated New Testament into German
  • Ninety-five -- Luther's statements that were nailed to the church door were called the _____ Theses
  • Pope Leo X -- pope who condemned Luther's Theses and excommunicated him
  • Wittenberg -- first Protestant university was the University of ________
  • Ulrich Zwingli -- the "people's priest"; began Reformation in Zurich, Switzerland
  • Waldensians -- follower of Peter Waldo
  • Wycliffe -- English scholar who had entire Bible translated into English for the first time
  • Italian -- this Renaissance was a "rebirth" of learning in Italy; focused on classical books of ancient Greece and Rome

Canada's Cities

  • Toronto -- The largest city in Canada
  • Vancouver -- Canada's Gateway to the Pacific
  • Ottawa -- The capital of Canada
  • Winnipeg -- Gateway to the West
  • Quebec City -- The only walled city north of Mexico
  • Montreal -- One of the world's largest inland ports
  • Churchill -- Polar Bear Capital of the World

Cara's List 33

  • horizon -- the line where earth and sky seem to meet
  • biography -- the written story of a person's life
  • fundamental -- basic
  • hazard -- a source of harm
  • lax -- not strict; careless
  • accountable -- having to answer for one's actions
  • eliminate -- to get rid of
  • participate -- to take part
  • possession -- ownership; property
  • strenuous -- requiring much energy

Cara's List 34

  • legible -- clearly written; readable
  • exhibition -- a public show or display
  • prominent -- easy to see
  • extraordinary -- very unusual; remarkable
  • edible -- fit to eat
  • illustrate -- to make clear by examples or pictures
  • quest -- a search or hunt
  • illiterate -- unable to read and write
  • excursion -- a short trip
  • intellect -- mental ability; the mind

Class. of Volcanoes 3.4

  • Dormant -- A volcano which erupted many years ago and is now inactive
  • Strombolian -- A usually mild, frequent eruption of a volcano
  • Shield -- Dome-shaped volcanoes formed b eruptions of fluid, runny lava
  • Calderas -- A large, bowl-shaped depression formed when an underground magma chamber caves in
  • Hawaiian -- Type of eruption in which a volcano produces a large amount of fluid lava; surges like water
  • Crater -- A depression at the top of a volcano
  • Composite -- Steep-sided volcanoes formed by alternating layers of flid lava and tephra
  • Extinct -- Volcanoes that have not erupted in recorded history or are unlikely to ever erupt again.
  • Plinian -- An eruption when volcano expels hot clouds of gas and dust high into the atmosphere, forming ash clouds
  • CinderCone -- Small, cone-shaped volcanoes formed mostly of tephra and quickly eroded

Desert - Pacific Coast

  • night -- Most desert animals come out at ______.
  • albatross -- The Wandering __________ has the greatest wingspan of any bird.
  • Yosemite -- North America's highest waterfall.
  • Sherman -- The tree that is considered to be the world's largest in wood volume is General __________.
  • prickly pear -- The most widespread cactus.
  • condor -- The largest land bird in North America is the California __________.
  • Olympic -- The rainiest places on earth are located on the ____________ Peninsula.
  • St. Helens -- The large volcano in the Cascades that erupted on Ma 18, 1980.
  • gila monster -- One of only two poisonous lizards in the world.
  • Crater Lake -- The deepest lake in the United States.
  • salmon -- The fish that is born in freshwater streams, migrates to the ocean, and travels back to its birthplace to lay eggs.

Down to Egypt

  • Nile River -- the longest river in the world
  • Herodotus -- the Greek historian who wrote descriptions of the wonders of ancient Egypt
  • Champollion -- the scholar who deciphered the Rosetta Stone and unlocked the secrets of hieroglyphics
  • Ramses II -- the pharaoh who had many giant statues of himself
  • sphinxes -- a mysterious statue with the head of a man, ram, or hawk and the body of a lion
  • archaeology -- the study of the relics and ruins of ancient cultures
  • Mizraim -- Ham's son who setled in Egypt
  • Moses -- the man God used to deliver Israel from slavery
  • Hatshepsut -- the only female pharaoh
  • pyramids -- huge tombs built for some pharaohs
  • Rosetta Stone -- the stone used by Jean Francis Champollion to decipher hieroglyphics
  • Joseph -- the vizier who prepared Egypt for a seven-year famine
  • Menes -- the pharaoh who united the two kingdoms of Egypt
  • Thutmose III -- the pharaoh when the Egyptian empire reached its greatest extent
  • hieroglyphics -- Egyptian writing

Down to Egypt (2)

  • pharaohs -- Egyptian god-kings
  • mastabas -- early tombs with flat tops and sloping sides
  • Great Sphinx -- a gigantic statue carved in limestone which has a lion's body and a human face in the likeness of a pharaoh
  • scribe -- a person who kept written records for the pharaoh and other government officials
  • cataracts -- rapids
  • dynasties -- families within which the right to be king is passed from one member to the next
  • Great Pyramid -- the first and largest pyramid
  • vizier -- the pharaoh's chief assistant
  • papyrus -- a plant used by the Egyptians to make boats, baskets, boxes, mats, sandals
  • mummification -- the Egyptian process of preserving dead bodies
  • Step Pyramid -- may have been the first structure in world history made entirely of stone
  • tribute -- a payment from oen nation to another

Early Church History

  • Christendom -- the portion of the world in which Christianity prevails
  • Nicine Creed -- a statement of belief affirming Christ's divinity
  • koine -- the most common form of the Greek language; used for writing New Testament
  • Eucharist -- the Lord's Supper
  • Judaism -- the religion of the Jews
  • catholic -- means "universal" or "one"
  • Roman Catholic -- the church founded on belief that bishop of Church of Rome is supreme over all churches
  • Irenaeus -- the church leader in Gaul; said every church must agree with Church of Rome
  • Jerusalem -- where the first Christian church was located
  • Nicaea -- the council that affirmed Christ's divinity in A.D. 325
  • apostles -- the twelve men who had first-handed knowledge of Jesus; God sent out to preach gospel
  • sacrament -- "sacred act"
  • Gentiles -- non-Jews
  • bishop -- comes from the Greek term meaning "overseer" or "superintendent"
  • Petrine theory -- belif that Christ made Peter head of Catholic church and Peter passed this to bishop of Rome
  • Diotrephes -- the church leader; loved "to have preeminence"; put himself above God's Word
  • Gelasius -- pope; said leaders of the church are supreme over all human rulers
  • Arianism -- opinion that Jesus was not God but rather had been created by God the Father
  • Middle Ages -- the period after the collapse of the Roman Empire
  • mass -- a Roman Catholic service
  • church -- an assembly or body of people
  • excommunication -- being cut off from communication with human rulers of the church; denied sacraments
  • deacon -- comes from the Greek word for "servant"
  • Apostolic -- idea which maintains Peter and Paul handed down their power is the ____ Succession
  • Pope -- the bishop of the church of Rome
  • Valentinian III -- Western Roman emperor; recognized Pope Leo I as supreme over church

Earth's Structure 3.1

  • Chemical -- This type of weathering is caused by natural acids
  • Geologist -- Scientists who study the earth
  • Moho -- The boundary between the crust and the mantle
  • Weathering -- The process by which new soil is formed
  • Geology -- The study of the earth
  • Sediments -- A thin layer of soil and a thick layer of sand and mineral fragments that covers the rocks of the crust
  • Soil -- A mixture of broken-down rocks and decomposed plants and animals
  • Physical -- This type of weathering is caused by water, ice, or windblown sand
  • Crust -- The outermost layer of the earth
  • Core -- The innermost region of the earth

Earthquakes 3.2

  • Circum-Pacific -- Most earthquakes occur in this best region.
  • Tremor -- A weak earthquake
  • Seismologists -- Scientists who study earthquakes
  • Epicenter -- The place at ground level that is directly above the focus
  • Belts -- The regions where most earthquake faults are found are called seismic ______.
  • Earthquakes -- Any trembling or shaking of the earth's crust
  • Seismology -- The study of earthquakes
  • Focus -- The point underground where an earthquake begins
  • Richter -- The most famous scale used to measure earthquake strength
  • Tsunamis -- Giant waves that may be caused by earthquakes
  • Aftershock -- Smaller earthquakes or tremors that occur periodically for days or even months after a major earthquake, gradually decreasing
  • Fault -- The break that appears in the rock at the boundary between two moving masses of rock
  • Magnitude -- The strength of an earthquake

From Empire to Feudalism

  • Verdun -- the treaty that divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts
  • Pepin the Short -- Mayor of the Palace; sought approval from pope to be titled king
  • fief -- piece of land owned by one man who permitted another to use it in return for services
  • Norsemen -- Vikings
  • Mayors -- government officials who did the kings' duties were ______ of the Palace
  • investiture -- act where the lord gave the vassal an object as symbol of vassal's rights to use fief
  • chivalry -- code of conduct for nobility and knights
  • Boniface -- missionary who acted for Pope Zacharias crowning Pepin king
  • coat of arms -- group of emblems and figures used for identification purposes
  • Franks -- freedom-loving Germanic people; settled in what is today called France and Germany
  • Magyars -- barbarian invader from the east; known as "Scourge of Europe"
  • moat -- protective trench of water surrounding castle
  • serfs -- farmers of the manors; worked for nobles and were like slaves
  • Patrician -- _____ of the romans was the title given to Pepin by the pope
  • Bishop Boniface -- missionary who acted for Pope Zacharias crowning Pepin king
  • feudalism -- way of life based upon the ownership and use of land
  • Moors -- Muslims from North Africa
  • Franks -- freedom-loving Germanic people; settled in what is today called France and Germany
  • vassal -- man who used the land in exchange for his services
  • fief -- piece of land owned by one man who permitted another to use it in return for services
  • crown land -- part of the king's land for personal use
  • Martel -- mayor who aligned himself with church supporting Bishop Boniface
  • squire -- personal servant to a lord or another knight in lord's service
  • Charlemagne -- "defender of the churches of Christ"; crowned "Charles Augustus, emperor of the Romans"
  • Verdun -- the treaty taht divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts
  • castles -- heavily fortified dwellings of nobles
  • Papal -- Donation of Pepin became known as the _______ States
  • Charles Martel -- mayor who aligned himself with church supporting Bishop Boniface
  • Norsemen -- Vikings
  • tournament -- mock wars between two teams of knights
  • Magyars -- barbarian invader from the east; known as "Scourge of Europe"
  • Charlemagne -- "defender of the churches of Christ"; crowned "Charles Augustus, emperor of the Romans"
  • lord -- man who owned the land
  • feudalism -- way of life based upon the ownership and use of land
  • Papal States -- Donation of Pepin
  • knight -- master of medieval warfare who wore heavy armor and fought on horseback with weapons
  • Clovis -- first great Frankish military and political leader; began Merovingian line of kings
  • page -- boy around age of 7 who is training for knighthood
  • Pepin -- Mayor of the Palace; sought approval from pope to be titled king
  • Patrician -- _____ of the romans was the title given to Pepin by the pope
  • heraldry -- study of coats of arms and their designs
  • Mayors -- government officials who did the kings' duties were ______ of the Palace
  • Clovis -- first great Frankish military and political leader; began Merovingian line of kings
  • Moors -- Muslims from North Africa
  • joust -- contest between two knights; fought to unseat each other

Greece: A Drama in 2 Acts

  • Xerxes -- the king who launched a second Persian invasion of Greece
  • Mount Olympus -- the home of the gods according to Greek mythology
  • Olympic games -- Greek games held every four years in honor of Zeus
  • Hellenistic -- the period between Alexander's conquest and the rise of the Roman Empire is called the ____ Age
  • Pericles -- the aristocrat who brought Athenian democracy to its fullest measure
  • Thermopylae -- the narrow mountain pass where the Spartan army was betrayed by a traitor
  • aristocracy -- rule by the "best"
  • Aristotle -- the philosopher who recognized order, design, and purpose in the universe; teacher of Alexander the Great
  • Alexandria -- the name given to 16 cities built by Alexander
  • democracy -- rule by the many or the common people
  • Ptolemy -- the general who ruled over Egypt after Alexander's death
  • Dorians -- ivaders from the north who helped to bring about a dark age in Greece which started about 1200 B.C.
  • direct -- a government in which the people themselves make the big decisions directly, rather than indirectly through representatives is a ____ democracy
  • Achilles -- a great warrior in Greek mythology
  • Thucydides -- the author of History of the Peloponnesian War
  • Athena -- Greek goddess of wisdom
  • philosopher -- "lover of wisdom"
  • Darius I -- the Persian king who crushed the Ionian revolt and demanded that the mainland Greeks submit to him
  • Troy -- a city on the coast of Asia Minor that was burned after a 10-year war
  • agora -- the Greek marketplace
  • Hellenic -- Greek
  • Solon -- an aristocrat who introduced democratic principles to Athenian government
  • Hellespont -- a strait between Europe and Asia Minor where the Persians built a bridge
  • monarchy -- rule by one
  • Plato -- the philosopher who wrote thirty or more works called dialogues
  • Persepolis -- the chief city of the Persian homeland that was conquered by Alexander in 530 B.C.
  • tyranny -- a bad form of one-man rule
  • Alexander -- the young Greek conqueror of Persia was _________ the Great.
  • Mycenaeans -- the people who flourished on the mainland of Greece between about 1600 and 1200 B.C.
  • Peloponnesian -- a league formed between Sparta and other Greek cities was the ______ League.
  • Homer -- the blind poet who greatly influenced Greek culture
  • Laomedon -- the general who took Syria, including all of Canaan, after Alexander's death
  • Apollo -- Greek god of the sun
  • Peloponnesian -- the war between Athens and Sparta that lasted from 431 B.C. to 404 B.C.
  • Cyrus the Great -- the Persian emperor who conquered Ionia in 546 B.C.
  • Knossos -- the Palace of ________ was an impressive structure built by teh Minoans
  • acropolis -- a hilltop fortress that served as a seat of governmet and religion
  • phalanx -- a large group of foot soldiers trained to charge the enemy as a group
  • Leonidas -- the brave leader of the Spartans at Thermopylae
  • Marathon -- the place where the greatly out-numbered Athenians defeated the Persians
  • Persian Wars -- a series of battles between the Persians and Greeks
  • Parthenon -- a beautiful temple to Athena
  • Socrates -- the philosopher who insisted that morality be a part of philosophy
  • Salamis -- the place where the small Greek navy defeated the Persian fleet
  • oligarchy -- rule by a few rather than one or many; rule by a few rich men
  • Philip II -- the Macedonian king who conquered almost all of Greece before he was assissinated
  • Minoans -- the people who built the earliest civilization in the vicinity of Greece
  • Helots -- the common laborers who farmed the land for the rulling class
  • Javan -- Japheth's son who was the ancestor of the Greeks
  • Antipater -- the general who ruled over Macedonia after Alexander's death
  • Zeus -- king of all the Greek gods
  • Delian League -- a defensive alliance formed by Athens to prevent another Persian invasion
  • Odysseus -- a great warrior in Greek mythology
  • Crete -- island where the Minoans lived
  • polis -- the Greek city-state
  • dialogues -- Plato's writings

History - Sumer to Canaan

  • Mesopotamia -- This is the land between the Tigris and Euphrates. Means "land between the rivers".
  • Marduk -- the chief god of Babylon who became the king of all the gods
  • dispersion -- the scattering of people over the earth
  • monotheist -- one who worships only one god
  • Hammurabi -- the king of Babylon who united all of Mesopotamia under his rule
  • ziggurat -- a tower built in tiers or stages, each stage smaller than the one beneath
  • Ur -- one of the most important cities of the land of Sumer; the city where God called Abraham to leave
  • bureaucracy -- a group of people appointed by a ruler to help him govern
  • Euphrates -- one of the two great rivers in the Fertile Crescent. Means "fruitful".
  • promulgation -- making the laws known
  • Megiddo -- the valley also called Armageddon that will be the last battleground of world history.
  • polytheist -- one who worships many gods
  • Sargon -- the Akkadian king who conquered the Sumerians
  • Anu -- the god of the sky
  • Middle East -- a part of the world where the continents africa, Asia, and Europe meet
  • empire -- rule by one city or people over other cities or peoples
  • Tigris -- one of the two great rivers in the Fertile Crescent. Means "arrow".
  • laws -- rules people follow in living together
  • Canaan -- the center of the ancient world
  • Patriarchs -- Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
  • cuneiform -- wedge-shaped writing
  • Abraham -- the father of the nation Israel
  • humanist -- one who makes men into gods
  • Joseph -- Jacob's son who was sold into slavery by his brothers
  • Nanna -- the moon god that supposedly owned the city of Ur
  • Fertile -- the area in the Middle East known for its ability to grow crops and shaped like a crescent is the ____ Crescent
  • Shamash -- the sun god who supposedly gave Hammurabi authority to make his code of laws

History - The Beginning

  • nation -- a group of people who think of themselves as one and act in history as a unit
  • Lamech -- a descendant of Cain; he bragged about the murders he had committed
  • Nimrod -- a mighty hunter who encouraged the people to build the tower of Babel
  • Babel -- the city in Shinar where the tower was built
  • Genesis -- the first book of the Bible; means "beginning"
  • culture -- the way of life of a group of people
  • Cain -- the first murderer; God doomed him to live as a wanderer because of his sin
  • Eve -- the first woman; her name means "mother of all"
  • Noah -- the man who obeyed God, built the ark, and with his family escaped God's judgment
  • Shinar -- the plain where Noah's family and his descendants settled
  • humanism -- putting man in place of or above God
  • Adam -- the very first man; his name mans "man"
  • Seth -- a son of Adam and Eve whose descendants were at least aware of their sins
  • Shem -- one of Noah's three sons who repopulated the world after the Flood
  • evolution -- the idea that man was not created directly by God but instead "evolved" from the animals

IEW Vocab Words 1-14

  • validate -- to prove to be true
  • radiant -- shining or giving off light; beaming, as with joy or energy
  • streak -- to move very fast; to leave a mark with a different color or texture
  • towering -- reaching a height above others
  • depict -- to describe by words or by picture
  • colossal -- huge
  • plead -- to beg
  • quake -- to shake or vibrate
  • descend -- to go down
  • corrupt -- to change from good to bad
  • indefinite -- not fixed or limited; not measurable; not clear
  • serpentine -- twisting and turning
  • bellow -- to give a loud, deep, roar
  • fashioned -- made, built, or shaped
  • contrary -- opposing or resisting

IEW Vocab Words 16-28

  • despair -- loss of hope
  • splendor -- magnifence
  • adorned -- decorated
  • ascend -- to go up
  • presently -- soon
  • monument -- something that serves as reminder of something else - esp. a building or statue
  • resemble -- to be like or similar to
  • erode -- to wear away
  • devour -- to eat or consume greedily
  • baffling -- hard to understand
  • enigma -- a mystery
  • fanciful -- imaginary
  • wail -- to grieve or cry

Indians of the West

  • Northwest -- One of the most advanced Indian cultures of North America
  • Salish -- The group of tribes known as Flatheads, lived in northwest Montana
  • Pueblo -- Spanish for "village".
  • Navajo -- Famous for their beautiful woven rugs and silver jewelry.
  • Nez Perce -- Famous as breeders of the appaloosa, a horse with a spotted or splotched coat
  • Pueblos -- Descendants of an earlier civilization called the Anasazi, who were excellent basket weavers.
  • Navajo -- The largest tribe in the United States today.
  • Spalding -- One of the first white women to journey west of the Rockies.
  • Sacagawea -- Famous Shoshone who joined Lewis and Clark on their trip across America to the Pacific Ocean
  • Ute -- The state of Utah was named after this Indian tribe.
  • reservation -- The term that is used for a piece of land set aside by the government as a home for an Indian tribe.
  • Whitman -- One of the first white women to journey west of the Rockies.

Islam versus Christendom

  • jihad -- Muslims' name for "holy war"
  • Koran -- Muslim holy book
  • Urban II -- the pope who proclaimed the beginning of Crusades
  • crusades -- "holy wars" fought against Islam in the name of Christianity
  • Mohammed II -- leader of the Ottomans who captured Constantinople in 1453
  • Fourth Crusade -- It never reach Holy Land but attacked and robbed city of Constantinople
  • Bedouins -- Arab nomads
  • First Crusade -- crusade that captured Asia Minor and took Jerusalem
  • Hegira -- Mohammed's flight from Mecca; turning point for Islam
  • Muslims -- followers of Islam
  • Mohammed -- the founder of Islam
  • Battle of Tours -- checked Muslim advance into western Europe
  • Lion-Hearted -- Richard the ________ was a valiant leaer in the Third Crusade
  • Third Crusade -- crusade called the "Crusade of the Kings"
  • Mecca -- the birthplace of Mohammed
  • Children's -- crusade in which many became slaves to North African Muslims
  • Allah -- the god of Islam
  • Islam -- the new religion founded by Mohammed about 600 years after Christ
  • caliphs -- Mohammed's successors
  • Saladin -- Muslim leader who reconquered Jerusalem during the Second Crusade
  • Peasants' -- crusade described as an unruly mob; destroyed by the Turks
  • Arabia -- the one million square-mile peninsula that lies southeast of fertile crescent
  • Second Crusade -- crusade that accomplished nothing
  • blackstone -- the sacred treasure stored at Kaaba

Israel in Its Land

  • Saul -- the first earthly king of Israel
  • Mount Sinai -- the place where God made a covenant with Israel and gave Moses the Ten Commandmets
  • Northern -- Israel; fell to the Assyrian Empire in the 700s B.C.
  • Carthage -- a Phoenician trading post which grew into a large city
  • Samuel -- the wise leader who warned Israel against the dangers of having an earthly king
  • Solomon -- the king who asked God for wisdom
  • Jericho -- the heavily fortified city that fell at the sound of trumpets and shouts
  • Tyre and Sidon -- two of the independent Phoenician cities
  • Hattusas -- the Hittite city burned by the Assyrians
  • Joshua -- the leader of Israel after Moses' death
  • David -- the king who led Israel to the peak of its greatness as a nation-state
  • Jordan River -- the river God parted to allow the Israelites to cross over into Canaan
  • Southern -- Judah; fell to the Chaldean Empire in the 500s B.C.
  • Asia Minor -- the are between the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Euphrates River
  • Moses -- leader who received the Ten Commandments at Mount Sinai

Israel in Its Land (2)

  • Decalogue -- the Ten Commandments
  • Chaldeans -- the people to whom the Northern Kingdom and the Hittites fell in the 500s B.C.
  • alphabet -- the most important thing that the Phoenicians carried with them on their trading ventures
  • Amalekites -- a group of people the Israelites were able to defeat while traveling toward Sinai
  • morality -- the basic rules of right and wrong, good and evil
  • Assyrians -- the people to whom the Northern Kingdom and the Hittites fell in the 700s B.C.
  • murex -- a kind of snail used to make dye
  • iron -- used by the Hittites to make weapos
  • theocracy -- rule by God
  • judges -- the leaders of Israel during its first 300 years in Canaan
  • Phoenicians -- prosperous sea traders who established a great network of trading posts
  • Hittites -- a group of people who controlled an empire in Asia Minor and who used their resources for war ad conquest
  • covenant -- a solemn agreement

Israel in Its Land (3)

  • Philistia -- Name another of Israel's western neighbors.
  • Lebanon -- the Mountains of _______ was the natural boundary that separated Israel from Phoenicia.
  • Hippo, Carthage -- Name two Phoenician trading posts on the northern coast of Africa.
  • Euphrates River -- What river marked the northernmost extent of Israel's influence?
  • Gulf of Aqaba -- What body of water marked southern border of Israel's influence?

Latin and Greek Roots 3

  • viv -- alive, live (Latin
  • vent -- to come (Latin)
  • log -- speech, word, reasoning, study (Greek)
  • spher -- ball (Greek)
  • uni -- one (Latin)
  • vers -- to turn (Latin)
  • ven -- to come (Latin)
  • alter -- other (Latin)
  • voc -- voice, to call (Latin)
  • vert -- to turn (Latin)
  • vita -- alive, live (Latin)
  • ali -- other (Latin)
  • logy -- speech, word, reasoning, study (Greek)
  • struct -- to build (Latin)
  • vac -- empty (Latin)

Latin and Greek Roots 4

  • tele -- from afar (Greek)
  • therm -- heat (Greek)
  • omni -- all (Latin)
  • theo -- God (Greek)
  • the -- God (Greek)

Latin and Greek Roots I

  • hydro -- water (Greek)
  • medi -- middle, between (Latin)
  • fort -- strong (Latin)
  • gram -- to write (Greek)
  • dic -- to say (Greek)
  • hydr -- water (Greek)
  • mit -- to send, to let go (Latin)
  • fer -- to bear, to carry (Latin)
  • graph -- to write (Greek)
  • bious -- life (Greek)
  • flu -- to flow (Latin)
  • grat -- pleasing, thankful (Latin)
  • geo -- earth (Greek)
  • bio -- life (Greek)
  • manu -- hand (Latin)

Latin and Greek Roots II

  • polis -- city (Greek)
  • salut -- safe, healthy (Latin)
  • scrip -- to write (Latin)
  • bibli -- book (Greek)
  • phon -- sound; voice (Greek)
  • salv -- safe, healthy (Latin)
  • scrib -- to write (Latin)
  • sens -- to feel, to perceive (Latin)
  • auto -- self (Greek)
  • astr -- star (Greek)
  • rupt -- to break (Greek)
  • sci -- to know (Latin)
  • sent -- to feel, to perceive (Latin)
  • dict -- to say (Greek)
  • aster -- star (Greek)

Narla's List for Jan. 15

  • had -- a form of have
  • hit -- to slap or strike
  • add -- to find the sum of numbers
  • dad -- a father
  • sat -- a form of sit
  • can -- to be able to
  • nap -- to sleep for a short while during the day
  • an -- One. (A form of a)
  • bad -- not nice
  • math -- working with numbers
  • am -- a form of be
  • at -- where something is
  • big -- large
  • camp -- an outdoor place with tents or cabins
  • cat -- a small animal with soft fur and a long tail

Narlita's List 1

  • ran --
  • hot --
  • cub --
  • man --
  • bus --
  • sit --
  • the --
  • sun --
  • net --
  • a --

Narlita's List 10

  • shirt --
  • have --
  • serve --
  • curl --
  • first --
  • stir --
  • said --
  • her --
  • burn --
  • dirt --
  • sir --
  • third --
  • purse --
  • turn --
  • girl --

Narlita's List 11

  • skirt --
  • spoil --
  • noise --
  • joy --
  • blow --
  • what --
  • boil --
  • moist --
  • boy --
  • proud --
  • said --
  • oil --
  • join --
  • point --
  • toy --

Narlita's List 12

  • have --
  • book --
  • foot --
  • boot --
  • moon --
  • tooth --
  • good --
  • shook --
  • loose --
  • roof --
  • give --
  • look --
  • wood --
  • food --
  • room --

Narlita's List 13

  • was --
  • check --
  • ouch --
  • horn --
  • work --
  • says --
  • chin --
  • much --
  • fork --
  • word --
  • cool --
  • chick --
  • born --
  • horse --
  • took --

Narlita's List 2

  • to --
  • goat --
  • read --
  • ride --
  • coat --
  • bean --
  • game --
  • the --
  • boat --
  • made --

Narlita's List 3

  • cute --
  • keep --
  • come --
  • kite --
  • kick --
  • cat --
  • cone --
  • came --
  • cake --
  • I --

Narlita's List 4

  • bake --
  • snack --
  • clock --
  • come --
  • back --
  • like --
  • brick --
  • broke --
  • lick --
  • snake --
  • shake --
  • to --

Narlita's List 5

  • to --
  • day --
  • gray --
  • clay --
  • hay --
  • pray --
  • spray --
  • stray --
  • you --
  • play --
  • stay --
  • way --

Narlita's List 6

  • will --
  • doll --
  • stuff --
  • bless --
  • bell --
  • of --
  • puff --
  • cross --
  • well --
  • you --
  • cuff --
  • sniff --

Narlita's List 7

  • so --
  • me --
  • cry --
  • no --
  • two --
  • he --
  • my --
  • go --
  • one --
  • be --
  • by --
  • try --

Narlita's List 8

  • shade --
  • fresh --
  • then --
  • do --
  • she --
  • brush --
  • that --
  • of --
  • shy --
  • sheep --
  • this --
  • with --

Narlita's List 9

  • shout --
  • cow --
  • brown --
  • town --
  • what --
  • round --
  • south --
  • down --
  • crown --
  • snow --
  • cloud --
  • now --
  • clown --
  • slow --
  • was --

Orders of Insects

  • Homoptera -- Same Wings
  • Hemiptera -- Half Wings
  • Coleoptera -- Sheath Wings
  • Lepidoptera -- Scale Wings
  • Odonata -- Toothed
  • Hymenoptera -- Membrane Wings
  • Diptera -- Two Wings
  • Orthoptera -- Straight Wings

Post-Reformation Europe

  • John I -- king whose reign marked beginning of Portugal's greatest days of glory
  • France -- formerly known as Gaul
  • Vasco da Gama -- first European to reach India sailing around Africa
  • Switzerland -- known for its political freedom and neutrality during war
  • Peasants' -- revolt or rebellion that resulted in German people being worse off than they had before
  • Christian IV -- kign who became champion of Lutheran Protestantism
  • Counter -- ________-Reformation; Roman church's attempt to prevent any more Catholics from becoming Protestants
  • Hugh Capet -- king whose coronation marks birth of French nation
  • Westphalia -- Peace of _______; renewal of same religious situation that existed before Thirty Year's War
  • Ferdinand -- ruler of Castile and Aragon; drove Jews and Muslims out of Spain
  • The Netherlands -- sometimes called Holland; people are called the Dutch or Hollanders
  • Bartolomeu Dias -- Portuguese explorer; sailed all the way to tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope)
  • Austria -- country in which the Hapsburg family was powerful
  • Twelve Articles -- list of peasants' grievances
  • Ferdinand II -- Holy Roman Emperor; determined to return Bohemia to Romanism by force
  • Augsburg -- Peace of _________; agreement that gave approval to territorial, state-established church concept in Germany
  • Charlemagne -- king under whose rules the Frankish reached its greatest extent
  • Thirty Years' -- war that was mainly a civil war in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire over religious and political issues
  • Isabella -- ruler of Castile and Aragon; drove Jews and Muslims out of Spain
  • Switzerland -- Under Roman Empire, this country became known as Helvetia
  • Navigator -- Prince Henry the _________ - avid sailor and explorer; helped Portugal lead way in great age of exploration
  • Spain -- The Roman name for this new territory was Hispania
  • Pedro Cabral -- Portuguese explorer who discovered Brazil
  • Loyola -- Ignatius ________ was a Spanish soldier who began the Jesuits
  • territorial -- official government churches; everyone had to belong
  • Adolphus -- Gustavus _____ won many victories for Protestant forces before he was killed in battle
  • Jesuits -- religious group formed by Loyola; became "spiritual arm" for Counter-Reformation
  • Margrete -- _________ of Denmark; the "lady king"; united countries of Scandinavia under one empire
  • Vikings -- inhabitants of ancient Scandinavia

Prefixes (A-C)

  • ant -- against, opposite
  • bin -- two, twice, having two parts
  • circum -- around
  • con -- with, together, completely
  • abs -- away (from), from
  • anti -- against, opposite
  • bi -- two, twice, having two parts
  • cata -- down; away; thoroughly
  • com -- with, together, completely
  • ab -- away (from), from
  • ante -- before
  • be -- about
  • bis -- two, twice, having two parts
  • circ -- around
  • ana -- on, up, back

Prefixes (D-M)

  • extra -- outside, beyond
  • in -- in, into
  • mis -- bad(ly), wrong(ly)
  • dis -- apart, away, reverse of, not
  • ex -- out of, away from
  • hypo -- under, below
  • inter -- between, among
  • mono -- one
  • dia -- through, between, across
  • epi -- upon, in addition
  • extro -- outside, beyond
  • im -- in, into
  • mon -- one
  • de -- away, down, completely
  • en -- in, into

Prefixes (N-U)

  • pro -- for, before, forward
  • super -- over, above, beyond
  • tri -- three
  • non -- not
  • per -- through, thoroughly
  • pre -- before
  • sub -- under, close to
  • trans -- across, beyond
  • para -- beside, alongside
  • post -- after
  • re -- back, again
  • sur -- over, above, beyond
  • un -- not
  • ob -- against, toward, completely
  • peri -- around

Provinces and Territories

  • Alberta -- Edmonton
  • NewBrunswick -- Fredericton
  • NWTerritories -- Yellowknife
  • PrinceEdIsland -- Charlottetown
  • YukonTerritory -- Whitehorse
  • Manitoba -- Winnipeg
  • NovaScotia -- Halifax
  • Ontario -- Toronto
  • Saskatchewan -- Regina
  • BritishColumbia -- Victoria
  • Newfoundland -- St. John's
  • Nunavut -- Iqaluit
  • Quebec -- Quebec City

Reading Vocab List 10

  • recompense -- to pay someone for something he has done
  • compel -- to force
  • resolutely -- with a firm, unwavering mind
  • martyr -- one who is killed because he will not deny his beliefs
  • vengeance -- punishment in return for a wrong
  • despitefully -- with the desire to harm
  • distortions -- things that mislead; the twisting of facts
  • avenge -- to give punishment in return
  • twain -- two
  • propaganda -- information used to convince people of something

Reading Vocab List 11

  • simultaneously -- at the same time
  • etch -- to draw by cutting into a surface
  • jackal -- wild, doglike animal
  • doused -- wet thoroughly
  • stylus -- a sharp pointed instrument used for engraving
  • dispiritedly -- without enthusiasm
  • murky -- dark and cloudy
  • quadriplegic -- a person who is paralyzed from the neck down
  • trappings -- accessories
  • lofty -- of great height

Reading Vocab List 12

  • shied -- moved away as if startled
  • braggart -- a person who boasts loudly of himself
  • heedless -- careless; without consideration
  • diffident -- shy
  • stupor -- a state of mental numbness
  • emporium -- a store that sells various items
  • complacently -- contentedly
  • dissuaded -- persuaded to change one's mind
  • sumach -- a type of shrub that is often poisonous
  • boggy -- marshy

Reading Vocab List 13

  • pottage -- a thick stew
  • cantering -- a horse's gait that is slower than a gallop
  • sustain -- to supply enough food for life
  • exile -- one who leaves his own country
  • tuberculosis -- a lung disease
  • carragheen -- a type of sea moss
  • improvised -- made from available materials
  • coupler -- a device that connects two things
  • subconscious -- the part of the mind below the conscious level
  • uninhabited -- having no residents

Reading Vocab List 14

  • apex -- highest point
  • quarterdeck -- part of the upper deck of a ship reserved for officers
  • brooked -- put up with
  • flat -- sailboat
  • cordage -- the ropes in the rigging of a ship
  • decrepit -- worn out by old age
  • fissure -- a long, narrow opening
  • quay -- a wharf where ships are loaded and unloaded
  • entrancing -- delightful
  • sojourn -- a brief stay

Reading Vocab List 16

  • grappled -- having a small anchor with three or more hooks on it
  • dame -- formerly used as a term of respect for a woman in authority
  • delicatessen -- a shop that specializes in meats and cheeses ready for serving
  • mail -- flexible metal armor
  • dike -- a bank of earth and rock that prevents flooding
  • stem -- to head straight into
  • brigade -- a large body of troops
  • antitoxin -- medicine used to stop the formation of a disease
  • rave -- roar and rage
  • league -- the distance of about three miles

Reading Vocab List 17

  • inferior -- a person lower in rank than another person
  • barracks -- a building for temporary use
  • aerials -- radio antennas suspended in air
  • elector -- a German prince of the Holy Roman Empire
  • coronation -- the crowning of a king or queen
  • terrace -- patio
  • cinders -- remains of burned substances
  • crestfallen -- discouraged
  • oscillator -- something that swings back and forth in rhythm
  • module -- part of a spacecraft that can be closed off from another part

Reading Vocab List 18

  • inglenook -- a corner by a fireplace
  • engrossed -- completely occupied
  • countered -- responded
  • rankling -- causing irritation
  • stricken -- overwhelmed by emotion
  • doused -- put out
  • nonchalant -- seemingly unconcerned
  • ambled -- walked casually
  • smuggled -- took away secretly
  • fugitives -- persons running away from something

Reading Vocab List 19

  • ludicrous -- absurd
  • animosity -- hatred
  • grasp -- understand
  • condescending -- showing a superior attitude
  • conspirator -- one who plans to do wrong
  • placid -- calm
  • preposterous -- ridiculous
  • prudence -- wisdom
  • numbly -- quickly and easily
  • emaciated -- very thin

Reading Vocab List 20

  • stinted -- made to do without necessities
  • clout -- the target in archery
  • corroborated -- supported
  • reconcile -- cause oneself to accept something
  • knave -- a man who ranks low in society
  • insolence -- insulting behavior
  • secretary -- a desk which has a small bookcase on top
  • guile -- clever deceit
  • troth -- faithfulness
  • pathetic -- able to bring forth compassion in others

Reading Vocab List 21

  • ewer -- a pitcher for serving
  • heath -- a stretch of open land covered with small plants
  • pikestaff -- a walking stick tipped with metal
  • retainers -- servants
  • bracken -- fern
  • cumber -- burden
  • garrison -- military troops stationed at a post
  • pikes -- long spears
  • sally -- a sudden rush or attack
  • keep -- the stronghold (fortress) of a castle

Reading Vocab List 22

  • thesis -- a long essay proving an idea
  • mace -- a heavy spiked club
  • plasma -- the clear liquid part of blood that cells float in
  • serum -- a yellowish fluid found in the blood
  • hist -- a word that commands silence
  • dais -- a raised platform
  • blitzkrieg -- a sudden military attack from the air
  • turrets -- tower-shaped projections on a castle
  • sconces -- brackets on the wall to hold candles or other lights
  • modification -- alteration; change

Reading Vocab List 23

  • baffled -- bewildered; confused
  • armistice -- a peace agreement that brings an end to fighting
  • conceded -- admitted
  • endeavored -- tried
  • airdrome -- airport
  • obscure -- unknown
  • tack -- a mission
  • ambitions -- desires to reach a goal
  • competent -- capable
  • enshrouded -- surrounded

Reading Vocab List 24

  • precepts -- rules or principles
  • jive talk -- slang words
  • glade -- an open area within a forest
  • freestone -- a stone that was heated and used as a bed-warmer on cold nights
  • derision -- ridicule
  • inauguration -- the ceremony that officially recognizes someone's public office
  • esteem -- value
  • disparagement -- a loss of respect
  • augers -- tools used to drill holes in wood
  • sublime -- of great worth

Reading Vocab List 25

  • lentils -- a type of peas or beans
  • morale -- good spirits such as confidence, cheerfulness, willingness, etc.
  • pillbox -- a platform for a machine gun
  • machete -- a large knife with a broad blade
  • paraphernalia -- equipment
  • campaigns -- military operations
  • rap -- to hit quickly
  • chonta -- a type of palm tree
  • primitive -- not in keeping with modern civilization
  • dear -- having a high price

Reading Vocab List 26

  • sire -- father
  • mackinaw -- a short woolen coat
  • uninitiated -- inexperienced
  • domesticated -- tame
  • thither -- toward that place
  • tawny -- brownish yellow
  • besmirch -- defile; make unclean
  • mauling -- rough handling
  • freshets -- floods caused by heavy rains
  • sash -- window frame

Reading Vocab List 27

  • comprised -- included
  • rash -- bold and hasty
  • benignant -- kind
  • naturalized -- admitted to citizenship
  • resplendent -- brilliant
  • snivel -- whine or complain
  • antiquated -- very old
  • maw -- the mouth of a stream
  • ninepence -- a silver coin worth about nine pennies
  • renown -- great fame

Reading Vocab List 28

  • confiscated -- seized and kept by authority
  • degradation -- corruption
  • innovations -- newly introduced ideas
  • cynical -- characterized by bitterness or unbelief
  • estate -- position
  • lathe -- a machine that shapes
  • phenomenon -- something unusual or marvelous
  • apostasy -- change of belief
  • exiles -- those who have been banned from their country
  • phosphorus -- a waxy substance that glows in the dark

Reading Vocab List 29

  • enterprise -- a plan
  • personified -- was a perfect example of
  • garret -- a room on the top floor of a house, usually under a pitched roof
  • garb -- disguise
  • arsenal -- a building that stores supplies
  • proprietor -- owner of a business
  • treason -- the betrayal of one's country
  • pelf -- money
  • diverged -- went in different directions
  • raw -- inexperienced

Reading Vocab List 30

  • superfluous -- extra
  • tempestuous -- resembling a storm
  • whim -- a sudden idea
  • providential -- from God
  • deprecatingly -- expressing strong disapproval
  • abstracted -- lost in thought
  • tick -- mattress
  • gable -- the space between the two slanted sides at the end of a roof
  • smart -- quick in movement
  • kindred spirit -- one who naturally understands another's thoughts and feelings

Reading Vocab List 31

  • destitute -- lacking necessary things
  • instrumentality -- a way of getting things done
  • arrest -- stop
  • urchins -- small children
  • censure -- criticism
  • giddy -- dizzy
  • waifs -- abandoned or orphaned children
  • unkempt -- untidy
  • putrefaction -- rotting and decay
  • flasks -- long-necked containers used in a laboratory

Reading Vocabulary List 1

  • inflammation -- pain, redness, and swelling caused by infection
  • craven -- cowardly
  • desolate -- deserted; barren
  • incandescent -- shining brightly
  • talons -- the claws of a bird of prey
  • slough -- a muddy hollow; a swamp
  • flatiron -- an iron that was heated on a hearth and used for pressing clothes or warming beds
  • remote -- located far away; secluded
  • filigree -- a delicate and detailed design
  • buffalo wolves -- wolves that lived on the plains and hunted buffalo

Reading Vocabulary List 2

  • lodgings -- places to live
  • cavalcade -- a parade of riders on horseback
  • brusquely -- abruptly
  • turbid -- muddy
  • guffaw -- to laugh heartily
  • mirage -- an optical illusion
  • quiver -- a portable case for holding arrows
  • prim -- neat
  • brackish -- somewhat salty
  • affrighted -- filled with fear

Reading Vocabulary List 3

  • discern -- to detect; distinguish
  • renegade -- an outlaw; a rebel
  • serenity -- the quality of remaining calm
  • alcoves -- secluded places
  • valiant -- courageous
  • prostrate -- lying flat on the ground
  • trowel -- a small garden tool used for scooping dirt
  • teeming -- abounding; swarming
  • rangy -- long and slender
  • sheen -- glistening brightness

Reading Vocabulary List 4

  • skiff -- a shallow flat-bottom boat
  • militia -- ordinary citizens ready for battle
  • sentry -- a guard
  • marshal -- a high-ranking official who aids the king in military affairs
  • bow -- the front section of a boat
  • orderly -- a soldier whose job is to help a superior officer
  • marquis -- a nobleman ranking just below a duke
  • stern -- the rear section of a boat
  • beeves -- meat from beef cattle
  • knoll -- a small hill

Reading Vocabulary List 5

  • guttural -- having the quality of sounds made in the throat
  • rughless -- without compassion or mercy
  • wharf -- a dock where ships load and unload
  • speculated -- thought about; considered
  • straightway -- immediately
  • dispensary -- a place where medicines and treatments are given out
  • embedded -- fixed firmly
  • vermilion -- bright red color
  • infirmary -- a type of hospital, usually small
  • intimate -- very close

Reading Vocabulary List 7

  • bowie -- a special hunting knife invented by Jim Bowie
  • jalopy -- an old, worn-out automobile
  • rawboned -- having a lean frame with prominent bones
  • lariat -- a lasso
  • greenhorn -- an inexperienced person
  • amend -- to improve
  • bowery -- a pleasant shady area
  • tenderfoot -- a newcomer; not used to rough outdoor life
  • towheaded -- having white-blond hair
  • piazza -- porch

Reading Vocabulary List 8

  • ledger -- a book in which business accounts are kept
  • laden -- weighed down wih a burden
  • azure -- a purplish blue
  • bottoms -- low-lying land next to a river
  • froth -- to foam
  • lithe -- flexile
  • apparatus -- an appliance or device for a particular purpose
  • gally -- the kitchen of a ship
  • yoke -- a bar to be carried across the shoulders with equal weights suspended on each end
  • Godhead -- the Trinity

Reading Vocabulary List 9

  • token -- a sign that gives proof
  • Moravians -- members of a Christian group in Germany who sent out some of the first missionaries of modern times
  • clamoring -- very noisy
  • warrant -- written authority
  • rituals -- formal religious acts
  • craggy -- uneven
  • sullenly -- with resentment
  • sever -- separate
  • manuscript -- the original of a book submitted for printing
  • plunder -- to take by force

Rome after Christ

  • Tiberius -- emperor who ruled during the time of Christ's crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension
  • Pompeii -- the city buried by Mount Vesuvius
  • Nero -- first emperor to persecute Christians
  • Adrianople -- where the Visigoths gave the Roman army one of its worst defeats
  • Trajan -- emperor who spread the empire to its greatest limits
  • five good -- emperors from 96 to 180 who were selected for their ability and specially trained
  • Maximian -- appointed by Diocletian to rule the western half of the Roman Empire
  • Woden -- German god whose name was used for Wednesday
  • Theodosius I -- the emperor who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
  • Pontius Pilate -- the Roman governor of Palestine who authorized the crucifixion of Christ
  • Mount Vesuvius -- a volcano that buried the city of Pompeii
  • Claudius -- emperor who expelled all Jews from Rome
  • Constantinople -- Constantine's new Roman capital
  • Domitian -- Flavian emperor who demanded to be worshiped as a god
  • Flavian -- Vespasian and his descendants who ruled from A.D. 69 to 96
  • Diocletion -- emperor who divided the empire into two parts; began the severest persecution Christianity ever knew
  • Sunna -- German god whose name was used for Sunday
  • Eusebius -- the church history writer who recorded Constantine's vision of the cross
  • Alaric -- the leader of the Visigoths
  • Caligula -- the insane emperor who was murdered by his bodyguards
  • Byzantium -- the site where Constantine built his new capital called Constantinople
  • Titus -- the emperor when Vesuvius erupted
  • Claudian -- four descendants of caesar Augustus who ruled from A.D. 14 to 68
  • Valerian -- emperor who tried to harm Christianity by attacking Christian leaders
  • Edict of Milan -- encouraged the policy of toleration that made being a Christian no longer a crime
  • Constantine -- the first Christian emperor of the Roman Empire
  • Thor -- German god whose name was used for Thursday
  • Attila -- the leader of the Huns

Rome before Christ

  • Apennines -- the mountain range which stretches from the Po River valley to the tip of the peninsula
  • Twelve Tables -- law that stated Roman law be written down and displayed in the Forum
  • Remus -- one of two brothers in the legend of Rome's beginning
  • Rubicon River -- where Caesar disobeyed and showed his determination to be ruler of Rome
  • Battle of Zama -- where Hannibal was defeated at the end of the Second Punic War
  • Scipio -- led the Roman attack on Carthage during the Second Punic War
  • Greeks -- early inhabitants of Italy
  • Actium -- Battle where Octavian defeated Antony
  • Antony -- Caesar's closest friend; defeated at Actium
  • Magna Graecia -- "greater Greece"
  • Pax Romana -- two hundred years of the Roman Empire remembered as a time of peace and prosperity
  • Herod -- Palestinian king at the time of Christ's birth
  • republic -- a form of government in which all citizens participate in decisions through elected officials
  • synagogues -- Jewish places of worship
  • Alps -- the mountains which isolate Italy from the rest of Europe
  • Senate -- the most powerful body in the Roman republic
  • Romulus -- one of two brothers in the legend of Rome's beginning
  • Carthage -- Rome;s enemy in the Punic Wars
  • Punic Wars -- three wars between Rome and Carthage
  • Hannibal -- used elephants in his march throuh the Alps during the Second Punic War
  • Gauls -- early inhabitants of Italy
  • Julian calendar -- a calendar Julius Caesar made that had 365 1/4 days per year
  • Julius Caesar -- ruled the Roman Empire from 49 to 44 B.C.
  • Latins -- early inhabitants of Italy
  • Imperator -- Octavian's title
  • Cleopatra -- last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt; committed suicide with Antony in 31 B.C.
  • Pantheon -- an ancient Roman temple dedicated to the numerous gods of the empire
  • Stoics -- group of philosophers
  • Sicily -- one of two large islands that lie near the Italian peninsula
  • patricians -- wealthier Romans
  • Christ -- the true King of the Jews whose coming was the great turning point of history
  • Tiber River -- the location of the city of Rome
  • Latin League -- a defensive allizance against the Etruscans
  • Pyrrhus -- the Greek king whose victories over Rome cost him many men
  • Palestine -- the name of the promised land by the time of the Roman Empire
  • Colosseum -- a Roman amphitheater where crowds gathered to watch men fight men and beasts to the death
  • Pompey -- elected consul in 70 B.C.; captured Jerusalem in 63 B.C.
  • Etruscans -- early inhabitants of Italy
  • Princeps -- Octavian's title
  • Octavian -- Julius Caesar's adopted son and heir; became known as Caesar Augustus
  • Forum -- a common meeting place which was the heart of the city of Rome
  • census -- a counting of the total population and value of property in each province
  • Sardinia -- one of two large islands that lie near the Italian peninsula
  • Plebeians -- the common people of Rome
  • Septuagint -- a Greek version of the Old Testament

Spelling List 24

  • synonymous -- having the same or nearly the same meaning
  • essay -- a short composition
  • complement -- something that completes or makes perfect
  • antecedent -- the word to which a pronoun refers
  • communicate -- to send or receive messages; to make known
  • plagiarism -- the use of someone else's thoughts or words as your own
  • italic -- a style of printing which slants to the right
  • bibliography -- a list of books and articles on a particular subject
  • grammar -- the study of how a language works
  • compliment -- something good said of someone

Spelling List 28

  • barometer -- an instrument for measuring air pressure
  • Celsius scale -- a scale for measuring temperature on which 0 degrees marks the freezing point of water and 100 degrees marks the boiling point
  • arid -- dry
  • condensation -- the forming of tiny droplets of water as water vapor cools
  • jet stream -- a high-speed wind current moving from west to east around the earth
  • hygrometer -- an instrument for measuring humidity
  • Fahrenheit scal -- a scale for measuring temperature on which 32 degrees marks the freezing point of water and 212 degrees marks the boiling point
  • drought -- a long season of no rain

Spelling Vocab List 1

  • concept -- an idea
  • consent -- permission
  • compelled -- forced; commanded
  • compound -- having two or more parts put together
  • concentration -- close attention
  • condescend -- to come down to another's mental or social level
  • deficiency -- shortage; inadequacy
  • companion -- a friend; one who accompanies another
  • contrite -- feeling deeply sorry for having sinned
  • conceit -- vanity
  • condemn -- to declare guilty; to sentence
  • consistency -- faithfulness; firmness of character
  • commercial -- having to do with business or trade
  • compassionate -- sympathetic
  • compromise -- the settling of a disagreement by both sides giving up something

Spelling Vocab List 10

  • gracious -- courteous and kind
  • reassure -- to encourage
  • contradictory -- opposite; contrary
  • directory -- a list of names and addresses
  • dehydrate -- to remove water from
  • grateful -- thankful
  • reject -- to cast off
  • reserve -- to set apart for later or some special purpose
  • predatory -- living by feeding upon other animals
  • congratulate -- to express pleasure over someone's success
  • renovate -- to make like new again
  • revise -- to read over carefully and improve
  • satisfactory -- adequate; good enough to fulfill the need
  • observatory -- a building for observing planets and stars
  • hydrophobia -- an abnormal fear of water

Spelling Vocab List 11

  • disentangle -- to loosen; to untangle
  • neglectful -- careless; irresponsible
  • manual -- made, done, or used by the hands
  • manipulated -- handled skillfully or cleverly
  • disgraceful -- shameful
  • disease -- a sickness
  • intermission -- a pause between the parts of a performance
  • maneuver -- to guide skillfully
  • fluently -- easily and rapidly, as in speaking or writing
  • disappoint -- to sadden by not doing what is expected
  • international -- between nations
  • bountiful -- plentiful; more than enough
  • manufacture -- to make a product
  • fluctuate -- to change continually; to waver
  • discord -- a lack of harmony or agreement

Spelling Vocab List 12

  • medieval -- pertaining to the Middle Ages
  • besieged -- made a long, continual attack
  • befuddled -- confused
  • simplify -- to make plainer or easier
  • glorify -- to worship or praise
  • intermittent -- stopping (leaving off), then starting again
  • bestow -- to give as a gift
  • bedraggled -- wet and dirty
  • dignify -- to make noble or proper
  • intensify -- to make stronger or greater
  • remittance -- money sent by mail
  • mediocre -- ordinary
  • beguiled -- deceived
  • clarify -- to make clear
  • rectify -- to make right; to correct

Spelling Vocab List 13

  • dehydrate -- to remove water from
  • renovate -- to make like new again
  • fluctuate -- to change continually; to waver
  • manipulated -- handled skillfully or cleverly
  • intermittent -- stopping (leaving off), then starting again
  • congratulate -- to express pleasure over someone's success
  • predatory -- living by feeding upon other animals
  • disentangle -- to loosen; to untangle
  • remittance -- money sent by mail
  • mediocre -- ordinary
  • hydrophobia -- an abnormal fear of water
  • contradictory -- opposite; contrary
  • fluently -- easily and rapidly, as in speaking or writing
  • bountiful -- plentiful; more than enough
  • medieval -- pertaining to the Middle Ages

Spelling Vocab List 2

  • immigrant -- a person who comes into a new country to live
  • attempted -- tried; made an effort
  • autobiography -- the story of one's life, written by oneself
  • incision -- a cut
  • inherit -- to receive something from an ancestor at his death
  • implement -- a tool; a utensil
  • irrigation -- the supplying of land with water by using ditches or sprinklers
  • bibliography -- a list of books and articles on a particular subject
  • incinerate -- to burn to ashes
  • import -- to bring in from another country
  • imminent -- about to happen; close at hand
  • persuaded -- convinced by argument or pleading
  • autocrat -- an absolute ruler
  • inoculate -- to inject a vaccine into a living organism to prevent disease
  • inhabit -- to dwell in or live in a place

Spelling Vocab List 3

  • submissive -- yielding to the authority of another
  • physician -- a person skilled in the art of healing; a doctor
  • biography -- the story of a person's life
  • predict -- to say in advance
  • submerged -- covered with water
  • substitute -- a person or thing that takes the place of another
  • dialogue -- a conversation between two or more people
  • biology -- the study of living things
  • diction -- the choice and use of words
  • contradict -- to say the opposite
  • subdue -- to conquer; to bring under control
  • diagnose -- to find the cause of a problem by close examination
  • amphibious -- able to live on land and in water
  • verdict -- the decision of a jury
  • suburb -- a community on the outskirts of a city

Spelling Vocab List 5

  • capable -- having ability; skillful
  • defer -- to submit to another's wishes
  • monarchy -- a nation governed by a king or queen
  • convertible -- able to be changed into something else
  • durable -- lasting; not easily broken
  • reliable -- trustworthy; able to be counted on
  • conifer -- a cone-bearing tree
  • monogram -- a single design made up of a person's initials
  • audible -- able to be heard
  • edible -- can be eaten
  • portable -- able to be moved from place to place
  • transfer -- to move up or carry from one place or person to another
  • fertile -- bearing fruit in great quanitities
  • visible -- able to be seen
  • credible -- can be believed

Spelling Vocab List 6

  • geography -- the description of the earth and its surface
  • biennial -- occurring every two years or lasting for two years, (as plants)
  • alliance -- a union or agreement
  • allegiance -- devotion; loyalty
  • resemblance -- likeness
  • fortify -- to make strong or secure
  • bisect -- to divide into two equal parts
  • triune -- being three in one
  • hindrance -- something that gets in the way
  • abundance -- much more than enough
  • geology -- the study of the earth through rocks
  • triangle -- a three-sided figure
  • assistance -- help or support
  • repentance -- sorrow for having done wrong and a desire to correct it
  • endurance -- the power to keep on without giving up

Spelling Vocab List 8

  • supervisor -- the one who oversees work
  • prosperity -- success; wealth
  • absurdity -- that which is ridiculous or silly
  • purity -- the state of being physically and morally clean
  • descend -- to go down (from a higher place)
  • deduct -- to take away; subtract
  • supernatural -- relating to more than the natural universe; relating to God
  • conformity -- the state of being in agreement; likeness
  • clarity -- the state of being clear
  • degrade -- to lower in standing or worth
  • superior -- of higher rank, quality, or importance
  • immunity -- the body's ability to resist an infection or disease
  • priority -- that which comes before in order of importance
  • sanity -- soundness mind and judgment
  • descendant -- one who comes down from a common ancestor

The America West II

  • Crater -- Teh deepest lake in the United States
  • ouzels -- The water ____ usually make their nests behind a waterfall
  • Yellowstone -- The largest high-altitude lake in North America
  • Grand -- The largest canyon in the world; the Colorado River flows though it
  • Yosemite -- North America's highest waterfall
  • pikas -- The "fat little farmers of the mountain slope"
  • Mammoth -- The most famous springs in Yellowstone is known as ________ Hot Springs
  • Great -- Largest saltwater lake in North America; the largest natural lake west of the Mississippi River
  • Carlsbad -- The world's most spectacular limestone caverns
  • Columbia -- The largest river flowing into the Pacific Ocean from North America
  • bighorn -- the wild sheep of North America
  • Faithful -- Famous geyser in Yellowstone National Park is known as Old _______.
  • Hells -- The deepest canyon in the United States; forms part of the border between Idaho and Oregon
  • Death -- The hottest and driest part of North America is known as __________ Valley

The American West

  • cordilleran -- The longest mountain chain on earth
  • sagebrush -- A bushy plant with a sweet smell and bitter taste
  • fauna -- the animals of a specific region
  • Rocky -- The backbone of North America is the _______ Mountains.
  • grizzly -- The bear considered to probably be the most dangerous animal in North America
  • Grand -- The world's largest canyon
  • cacti -- Traveling plants native to the Western Hemisphere and found mainly in deserts
  • flora -- the plants of a specific region
  • Great -- The name given to the divide in North America is the ______ Divide
  • mountain -- The animal that is the second largest cat in the Western Hemisphere is the ______ lion
  • bristlecone -- The longest-living tree found in the Great Basin Desert
  • saguaro -- The largest cactus in the world
  • continental -- a stretch of high land that divides the rivers of a continental is the _____ divide.
  • Yellowstone -- The oldest national park in the world and one of the largest in North America
  • Basin -- The largest area in the United States is the Great _________.

The English Nation

  • de Montfort -- Simon _____ called the first meeting of Parliament in 1265
  • Edward I -- his "Model Parliament" resulted in representative government
  • Cromwell -- Oliver _____; military genius who became Lord Protector of England after Civil War
  • Bosworth Field -- Battle of ________; site where Henry Tudor defeated Richard III and became Henry VII
  • Anne Boleyn -- Protestant mother of Elizabeth I
  • Henry VIII -- divorced Catherine of Aragon because he wanted male heir
  • William III -- king of England as a result of the Glorious Revolution
  • Scottish -- _______ Reformation; led by John Knox
  • King James -- translation commissioned by James I and completed in 1611
  • Edward Coke -- Chief Justice; one of England's greatest lawyers
  • Elizabeth I -- "The Virgin Queen"; beloved for her remarkable character
  • Druids -- special group of Celtic men who acted as teachers, judges, and priests
  • English Civil -- War between Cavaliers and Roundheads
  • Augustine -- the first archbishop of Canterbury
  • John Knox -- outstanding leader of Scottish Reformation
  • Chronicles -- Anglo-Saxon _______; running account of current events begun by Alfred the Great
  • Dover -- treaty in which Charles II agreed to obtain toleration for English Catholics and join Roman church
  • Conqueror -- William the _______; defeated Harold Godwin at Battle of Hastings
  • Francis Drake -- attacked and raided Spanish ships with Elizabeth's knowledge and approval
  • Magna Carta -- document that defined ancient rights and privileges of people which King John forced to sign at Runnymeade
  • Julius Caesar -- conquered the Celts around 55 B.C.
  • King John -- the most hated king of English history
  • Charles I -- "Man of Blood"; tried and executed Cromwell's army
  • War of Roses -- war between the houses of Lancaster and York
  • Aragon -- Catherine of ________ was Henry VIII's first wife
  • Henry VII -- first Tudor king of England
  • James II -- king who tried unsuccessfully to reimpose Romanism on England
  • Common Prayer -- book of prayers to be spoken or sung
  • John Foxe -- wrote the Book of Martyrs
  • Mary II -- queen who resolved to return English nation to Roman church; "Bloody Mary"
  • Celts -- earliest known inhabitants of the British Isles
  • Puritans -- group that wanted to "purify" the Church of England
  • Roundheads -- whose against the king during the English Civil War
  • Mary Stuart -- Queen of Scots; her mother planned to depose Elizabeth to make Mary queen of England
  • Beowulf -- the greatest Saxon poem
  • Dover -- treaty secretly signed between Charles II and King Louis XIV
  • Canute the Dane -- Viking; ruled England, Denmark, and Norway as a great empire
  • John Hawkins -- built up the English fleet
  • Domesday Book -- compilation of census ordered by King William which was completed in 1086
  • Glorious -- Bloodless Revolution that established the principle of government by consent
  • Richard I -- English king known for his love of Crusades
  • James I -- first Stuart king of England; had scholars produce King James or Authorized Version of the Bible
  • Hundred Years' -- dispute over French throne which lasted from 1337 to 1453
  • Joan of Arc -- "Maid of Orleans" who led the French to some victories over English
  • Henry IV -- first king in Lancastrian dynasty
  • Charles II -- king under whom the monarchy was fully restored by 1662
  • English -- _______ Reformation; time when England broke ties with Catholic Church; Bible became accessible to all English
  • Thomas Cranmer -- Protestant archbishop of Canterbury
  • Edward VI -- Henry VIII's only male heir; Protestantism progressed
  • Mary II -- queen of England with William III as a result of the Glorious Revolution
  • Spanish Armada -- Invincible Armada completely defeated by the English
  • Right -- Petition of _____; document that reaffirmed liberties and rights which Englishmen won
  • Philip II -- king of Spain who was determined to overthrow Elizabeth and make Catholic queen of Scotland queen of England
  • Anglo-Saxons -- the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons who conquered Britain
  • Ironsides -- Cromwell's troops
  • Alfred -- ________ the Great was the first great king of England
  • Silent -- William the ________; Prince of Orange; led Dutch patriots in defense of Protestantism; "father of his country"
  • Norman Conquest -- William the Conqueror's victory at the Battle of Hastings
  • Whigs -- group that arose in Parliament to oppose Charles II
  • Henry II -- first in the line of Plantagenet kings
  • Shakespeare -- the greatest writer the world has ever known; author of 38 plays performed at Globe Theater
  • constitution -- rules for exercise and restraint of governmental power

The Intermountain Region

  • Mt. Whitney -- the highest point in the United States outside Alaska
  • Painted Desert -- Stretches for 200 miles along the Little Colorado River
  • Columbia -- the largest lava plateau in the world
  • bristlecone -- this pine lives longer than any other tree in the world
  • Grand Canyon -- the largest canyon in the world
  • Havasupai -- people of the blue-green water
  • Carlsbad -- the world's most spectacular limestone caverns
  • Great Basin -- the largest desert area in the United States
  • saguaro cactus -- the largest cactus in the world
  • Coronado -- Spanish explorer; the first white men to see the Grand Canyon
  • Hopi -- Indians who live in the Painted Desert and use brightly colored sands to make their paintings
  • Petrified Fores -- the largest and most colorful forest in the world
  • Hells Canyon -- the deepest canyon in the United States
  • Great Salt Lake -- the largest saltwater lake in North America
  • Death Valley -- the hottest and driest part of North America

The Rocky Mountains

  • Rocky Mountains -- the backbone of North America
  • fauna -- the animals of a specific region
  • Columbia River -- the largest river flowing into the Pacific Ocean from North America
  • Steamboat -- the world's largest geyser
  • Cordilleras -- a system of mountain ranges which reaches from the Arctic to South America
  • flora -- the plants of a specific region
  • Colorado River -- the river that flows through the Grand Canyon
  • Old Faithful -- the most famous geyser
  • Yellowstone -- the largest high-altitude lake in North America
  • Mt. Elbert -- the highest peak in the Rockies
  • Great Divide -- the stretch of high land that divides the river systems of North America
  • Yellowstone -- the oldest national park in the world
  • Mammoth -- the most famous hot springs in Yellowstone National Park

Vocabulary for List 20

  • inaugurated -- installed in office with a ceremony
  • executive -- the branch of government that carries out the laws
  • liberal -- a person who seeks to break away from traditional beliefs and values
  • ambassador -- a representative sent by one government to another
  • judicial -- the branch of government that interprets the laws according to the Constitution
  • conservative -- a person who seeks to preserve (keep) traditional beliefs and values
  • quorum -- the number of members required at a meeting to conduct business
  • legislative -- the branch of government that makes the laws
  • Cabinet -- advisors to the President
  • federal -- having to do with the national government

Vocabulary for List 21

  • batten -- make secure
  • omnipotent -- all powerful
  • vigil -- a time of watching while others sleep
  • laboratory -- a workplace for scientists
  • speculations -- opinions based on reason
  • eerie -- causing fear
  • rations -- specific amounts of food

Vocabulary for List 22

  • vices -- evil practices or habits
  • fray -- a fight
  • mainstay -- the main support
  • ciphered -- did arithmetic
  • hew -- to cut
  • cadet -- a military school student
  • grubbing -- digging

Vocabulary for List 23

  • elated -- full of joy
  • pawned -- borrowed money in exchange for personal property
  • charity -- good will; love
  • malice -- ill will; hatred
  • appropriated -- set aside for a particular use
  • kiln -- an oven for hardening or drying substances like bricks and ceramics
  • solicit -- to ask for

Vocabulary for List 24

  • momentum -- the force that keeps an object moving
  • silhouette -- an outline of something, usually filled in with black
  • drafted -- required to join the military
  • prone -- lying face down
  • ungainly -- awkward and clumsy
  • outset -- the beginning
  • staunch -- firm and steadfast

Vocabulary for List 25

  • amiable -- pleasant, good natured
  • indolent -- lazy
  • protege -- one who is trained by another
  • effervescence -- high spirits
  • jovial -- fun-filled
  • aquatic -- taking place in water
  • intimate -- closely acquainted

Vocabulary for List 26

  • emitted -- spoke; uttered
  • inculcate -- to teach; instill
  • unverifiable -- not able to be proven
  • incorporate -- to combine with
  • travail -- anquish; extreme hardship
  • harrowing -- extremely distressing
  • languor -- stillness

Vocabulary for List 27

  • encumber -- add a burden to
  • lair -- the home of a wild animal
  • dignity -- manner and appearance worthy of respect
  • kerchief -- a handkerchief, often tied around the neck
  • ambush -- a sudden attack made from a place of hiding
  • hunch -- an instinctive feeling or idea
  • mirth -- happiness characterized by laughter

Vocabulary for List 28

  • curlew -- a bird with long legs and a curved bill
  • whiff -- a smell passing through the air
  • buckwheat -- a type of wheat used to make flour
  • pewter -- a silver-colored metal used to make tableware
  • balmy -- gentle and pleasant
  • lamentation -- an expression of grief
  • zephyrs -- soft, gentle breezes

Vocabulary for List 6

  • lanky -- tall, thin, and awkward
  • burly -- strong and muscular
  • capsize -- to overturn in the water
  • blundered -- moved clumsily
  • aside -- a remark made quietly so as not to be heard by most
  • chisel -- a tool used to cut and carve
  • foreman -- the leader of a work crew
  • fervently -- showing great emotion or zeal
  • miser -- a greedy person who hoards money
  • ties -- wooden beams laid across a railroad bed to secure the rails

Vocabulary List 1

  • stove -- oven
  • foolish -- silly
  • grin -- smile
  • old -- not new
  • normal -- usual
  • unkind -- mean
  • riddle -- puzzle
  • argue -- fight
  • slip -- to fall on the ice
  • muddy -- dirty
  • hidden -- secret
  • present -- gift
  • bring -- carry
  • look -- to watch
  • bag -- sack

Vocabulary List 15

  • intrigued -- made curious and interested
  • swatch -- a sample piece of material
  • flaw -- a piece of land
  • monotony -- boredom
  • moored -- tied securely
  • pack ice -- pieces of ice that form a large mass
  • chastisement -- correction, punishment
  • dauntless -- fearless; incapable of being discouraged
  • tussocks -- clumps or clusters
  • tomcod -- an edible marine fish

Volcanoes 3.3

  • Chamber -- A reservoir of magma a few miles beneath the surface that may give rise to a volcano is the Magma _____.
  • Fumaroles -- Holes or cracks serving as escape vents for underground gases
  • Bombs -- Fragments of tephra more than 2 1/2 inches across.
  • Volcano -- A vent that allows molten rock and hot gases to escape from within the earth
  • Ring -- The belt of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean is known as the _____ of Fire
  • Ash -- The smallest fragments of tephra are known as volcanic _____.
  • Magma -- Name given to melted rock whil it is still underground
  • Lava -- Name given to melted rock that has reached the earth's surface
  • Tephra -- Volcanic ash, lapilli, and volcanic bombs are examples of these rock fragments
  • Lapilli -- Fragments of tephra that are smaller than bombs and larger than ash.
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PS.
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